Title: Copenhagen Urban Freight project – potentials and barriers – a case study approach Keywords: Urban freight transport, urban sustainability, Copenhagen Urban Freight Or-dinance, City logistics, mobility, supply chain approach Introduction The Copenhagen Urban Freight project was launched in 1995, where representatives from two competing transport companies, working for the first time in cooperation on behalf on the Danish Minster for Transport, presented their ideas toward a more efficient urban city logistics at a Danish transport conference. A Copenhagen City official attended the conference, and soon afterwards a taskforce was founded in cooperation with the transport companies. This taskforce comprised of actors from the transport industry, city officials, and goods receivers, as well as local and national interest organisations. The goal was to design and test new regulatory measures guided towards transporters for the most central part of Copenhagen City. An area about the size of 1 km2 where the roads are narrow and congestion, pollution and low visibility is a daily phenomenon. The main measure was to increase the capacity usage of local trucks to an average of 60 % as well as keeping out those transporters not able to comply. The approach taken in this project – sparked by a wish to include all supply chain representatives and actors – was (and is) new in Danish transport planning practice. It is therefore an interesting process to evaluate more thoroughly, which is the purpose of this study. Aim of the project – problem formulation The analytical approach in this study is quite pragmatic. There has been no extensive theoretical framework to be tested, nor existed a deep previous understanding of the Copenhagen Urban Freight project itself. The goal is to understand the process behind the project – the story – end the experiences that can be drawn from it, which is at the heart of this study. I do however take the liberty to include the theoretical framework of sustainable development. This I have done because I have worked with the concept before and wish to see, if the practical experiences of the Copenhagen Urban Freight project, can be seen as a way to narrow the gap between the existing – non-sustainable – transport planning and a new approach to transport planning. The research question asked in this study says: What experiences from the Copenhagen Urban Freight project can be found? · Which potentials and barriers can be identified for the Copenhagen Urban Freight pro-ject? · Is the Copenhagen Urban Freight project a strategy towards a new way of transport planning and hence the road towards a more environmental sustainable transport planning practice? Methodology As the title indicates, the methodological approach in this study has been to do an empirical case study of the Copenhagen Urban Freight project. This can be done in many ways. Here, the case study approach consists of four main parts. Firstly, a scan of relevant written documenta-tion is performed to gain more knowledge about the nature of the Copenhagen Urban Freight project, as well as the main events in the process of design and testing phase of the project. This process produced a timeline, which was evaluated as the case story unfolded. Secondly, eight interviews with relevant representative actors were performed to document their experi-ences, arguments and stories behind the process. The interviews were done as thematic single interviews, where the actors themselves handpicked three (of a total number of six) themes formulated by me on the basis of the case history, they from their experience found to have been the most important. This method ensured, that their arguments and their focus from the project became very well documented. Secondly, the interviews were condensed to a single story for each of the eight interviewees – the vertical analysis. Thirdly, the actors’ choice of themes was summarized for all eight interviewees, showing which themes – overall – had been of the most importance. Using the stories and arguments from the vertical analysis, their choices were explained and evaluated – what was of the most importance and why? This was done for all six themes, and then the overall picture – the horizontal analysis – became clear. Finally, after reviewing the interview and case material, I rely on the help of a few other studies to help understand and strengthen the final analysis. Thus, this study operates with four main analytical levels. The experience with this case study method is, that it is a very comprehensive approach that does drain resources, but is also analytically thorough, making the results more reliable. Main results and conclusions A long process: The process of getting the Copenhagen Urban Freight project realised – testing a new set of regulatory measures – took a very long time. The project started in 1995, and it was not until the second half of 2003 before the measures had been tested (the design said two years, but only 21 months were allowed). The delay was in part due to difficulties of reaching a final design by the involved actors. The main reason though, was that the original design, when completed, was not legal. New national law had to be passed in the Danish parliament, before an application process at the relevant national authorities could commence. Diminished effects beforehand. A main tool to keep out unwanted goods transporters from the inner city area was to charge a daily fee of 200 dkr. (aprox. £ 18). This measure was against national law, and was lowered to 40 dkr. – one fifth of the original amount, diminishing the effects of the regulation. Main actors’ not present. A great wish from the goods transporters with this process was to start a dialogue with the goods receivers and local craftsmen, and find mutual solutions to the many problems experienced daily by the goods transporters. The only main representative from the goods receivers (a main Copenhagen department store) pulled out early, leaving only one local interest organisation representative, effectively ruining the supply chain perspective sought by the goods transporters. The local craftsmen did not wish to participate. Main goals were unclear. Early on the goal of the project was communicated to be local environ-mental improvements, but when later asked, all actors had less congestion as a (if not the) main goal. The unclear goals made it difficult to evaluate the Copenhagen Urban Freight project as well as steer the process in the right direction during the long process. Lack of political support. The actors from the Copenhagen Urban Freight project had all felt a good, positive and open-minded dialogue within the project. This experience did not translate, however, when they had to deal with the local or national administrative and political levels. Some actors expressed a feeling of the project being marked as too rigid towards transport companies, commerce and business, and hence not worth actively supporting. Which, accord-ing to other studies, is essential for success. Police exemptions. The local police had a few years earlier, before the taskforce was formed, started a practice of issuing police exemptions, mainly to local craftsmen wanting to use their van to work related transport, within the inner city area. The exemption effectively gave the craftsmen permission to park their van free of charge, but only in non-parking zones where short stops were allowed – zones very relevant for goods transporters making many short stops all day. Normal parking would cost a high parking fee for all, thus making non-parking zones very often occupied all day by craftsmen vans. Environmental sustainable transport planning? Some elements of the Copenhagen Urban Freight pro-ject does suggest a will to pursue local environmental goals, but when asked, all actors – though acknowledging the local environmental benefits from a more efficient usage of trucks – says the main goal to be less congestion, which in turn harbours strong economic benefits as well.
|Educations||TekSam - Technological and Socio-Economic Planning, (Bachelor/Graduate Programme) Graduate|
|Publication date||1 Jan 2005|
|Supervisors||Lise Drewes & Per Homann Jespersen|
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