Virtual Reality Instruction Followed by Enactment Can Increase Procedural Knowledge in a Science Lesson

Niels Koch Andreasen, Sarune Baceviciute, Prajakt Pande, Guido Makrasnky

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


A 2×2 between-subjects experiment (a) investigated and compared the instructional effectiveness of immersive virtual reality (VR) versus video as media for teaching scientific procedural knowledge, and (b) examined the efficacy of enactment as a generative learning strategy in combination with the respective instructional media. A total of 117 high school students (74 females) were randomly distributed across four instructional groups - VR and enactment, video and enactment, only VR, and only video. Outcome measures included declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, knowledge transfer, and subjective ratings of perceived enjoyment. Results indicated that there were no main effects or interactions for the outcomes of declarative knowledge or transfer. However, there was a significant interaction between media and method for the outcome of procedural knowledge with the VR and enactment group having the highest performance. Furthermore, media also seemed to have a significant effect on student perceived enjoyment, indicating that the groups enjoyed the VR simulation significantly more than the video. The results deepen our understanding of how we learn with immersive technology, as well as suggest important implications for implementing VR in schools.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 26th IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces
Number of pages1
Publication date2019
ISBN (Print)9781728113784
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-1377-7
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventThe 26th IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces - Osaka, Japan
Duration: 23 Mar 201927 Mar 2019
Conference number: 26


ConferenceThe 26th IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces


  • Virtual reality
  • generative learning strategy
  • Enactment
  • Learning
  • Procedural knowledge

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