There is a need for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines to protect against chronic bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a number of species. One of the main challenges for vaccine development is the lack of safe adjuvants that induce protective immune responses. Cationic Adjuvant Formulation 01 (CAF01)—an adjuvant based on trehalose dibehenate (TDB) and targeting the Mincle receptor—has entered human trials based on promising pre-clinical results in a number of species. However, in cattle CAF01 only induces weak systemic immune responses. In this study, we tested the ability of three pattern recognition receptors, either alone or in combination, to activate bovine monocytes and macrophages. We found that addition of the TLR3 agonist, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly(I:C)) to either one of the Mincle receptor agonists, TDB or monomycoloyl glycerol (MMG), enhanced monocyte activation, and calves vaccinated with CAF09 containing MMG and Poly(I:C) had increased cell-mediated and humoral immune response compared to CAF01 vaccinated animals. In contrast to the highly reactogenic Montanide ISA 61 VG, CAF09-primed T cells maintained a higher frequency of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells (IFN-γ+ TNF-α+ IL-2+). In conclusion, CAF09 supports the development of antibodies along with a high-quality cell-mediated immune response and is a promising alternative to oil-in-water adjuvant in cattle and other ruminants.
Thakur, A., Andrea, A., Mikkelsen, H., Woodworth , J., Andersen, P., & Jungersen, G. (2018). Targeting the Mincle and TLR3 receptor using the dual agonist cationic adjuvant formulation 9 (CAF09) induces humoral and polyfunctional memory T cell responses in calves. P L o S One, 13(7), [e0201253]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201253