The cultivation of planktonic crustaceans as live feed is of paramount importance for the aquaculture and aquarium industries. The use of live cladocerans as feed for freshwater fish is limited to the aquarium industry, whereas Artemia and copepods are used to feed edible marine fish larvae with small mouth gape. Live feed production is expensive and time-consuming and therefore only used for fish which cannot be fed on inert diet directly, and only until they are ready for weaning to inert diet. High-quality planktonic crustacean cultures are furthermore used to conduct environmental risk assessments for hazardous chemicals. Cladocerans are widely used for ecotoxicology testing but Artemia and copepods are emerging new model species. In the present chapter, we review the culturing procedures of these important planktonic crustaceans: Artemia, cladocerans and copepods and discuss their use as live feed and as test organisms for environmental risk assessments. The culturing procedures are categorized into three complexity levels: extensive, semi-extensive, and intensive. In general, the pros for Artemia and cladocerans are that they are easier to culture than copepods. Copepods are often more difficult in culture requirement and feeding. Nevertheless, copepods has the advantage that they can cover the entire range from freshwater to saline, were cladocerans are limited to freshwater and Artemia to seawater. Artemia cysts and copepods eggs has well defined protocol for storage and distribution to aquaculture end users. Whereas, cladocerans has the potential of the ephippia stage, although this is not well developed. For toxicological testing three species are used, Artemia franciscana, Daphnia magna and Acartia tonsa. Artemia and A. tonsa in seawater testing, D. magna in freshwater testing. . We conclude the chapter with a comparative analysis of these organisms from a use and culturing capability and demonstrate that there are strong similarities and challenges across these taxa.
|Title of host publication||Fisheries and Aquaculture|
|Editors||Gustavo Lovrich, Martin Thiel|
|Place of Publication||Oxford|
|Publisher||Oxford University Press|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
|Series||Natural History of Crustacea|