Liquidity Risk, Transaction Costs and Financial Closedness: Lessons from the Iranian and Turkish Stock Markets

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review



We study the impact of liquidity risk and transaction costs on stock pricing in Iran, a closed market operating under a financial embargo, and compare the results with those of an important neighbouring market, namely Turkey.

Design, Methodology, Approach:

We follow Liu et al. (2016) and incorporate liquidity risk and transaction costs into the traditional Consumption-based Asset-pricing Model (CCAPM) from 2009 to 2017. Effective transaction costs are estimated a la Hasbrouck (2009) and liquidity risk according to eight different criteria.


According to our results, both liquidity risk and transaction costs are higher in Iran, possibly due to the financial embargo. Thus, relative to Turkey, we should expect a higher increase in the CCAPM pricing performance in Iran when accounting for these two variables. Our results are in line with this expectation and indicate that adjusting the CCAPM significantly increase its pricing performance in both countries, but relatively more in Iran.


We compare liquidity risk and transaction costs in an economy under the extreme case of a financial embargo to an open, yet in other important aspects similar economy from the same region.
Original languageEnglish
JournalReview of Accounting and Finance
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Financial Embargo
  • transaction costs
  • liquidity risk
  • consumption risk
  • Asset-Pricing
  • financial closedness and openness

Cite this