Hybrid languages

Patrick Blackburn*, Jerry Seligman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


Hybrid languages have both modal and first-order characteristics: a Kripke semantics, and explicit variable binding apparatus. This paper motivates the development of hybrid languages, sketches their history, and examines the expressive power of three hybrid binders. We show that all three binders give rise to languages strictly weaker than the corresponding first-order language, that full first-order expressivity can be gained by adding the universal modality, and that all three binders can force the existence of infinite models and have undecidable satisfiability problems.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Logic, Language and Information
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)251-272
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • correspondence theory
  • first-order fragments
  • hybrid languages
  • Modal logic

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