Hospitalizations and Deaths from Diarrhea and Rotavirus among Children <5 Years of Age in the United States, 1993–2003

Thea Kølsen Fischer, Cecile Viboud, Umesh D. Parashar, Mark Malek, Claudia Steiner, Roger I. Glass, Lone Simonsen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Recently a new rotavirus vaccine was licensed in the United States and recommended for universal immunization of American children. The impact of the vaccine on a decrease in hospitalizations will take several years to assess and will be based on the availability of good baseline data on the disease. We used the largest US hospital discharge database available, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), to study national rates, trends, and risk factors for diarrhea- and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and deaths amongchildren <5 years of age, to establish a baseline against which vaccine implementation can be measured. Rotavirus remained the most important cause of pediatric diarrhea throughout the study period (1993–2003). When the data were extrapolated to the US population, rotavirus was estimated to be the cause of ∼60,000 hospitalizations and 37 deaths annually. Black infants had a significantly higher risk of being hospitalized with and dying from rotavirus disease early in life, compared with white infants (risk ratio [RR] for hospitalization by 12 months of age was 2.4, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.2–4.7; RR for death was 2.0, with a 95% CI of 1.7–2.5). Such racial differences in age and risk of rotavirus-associated hospitalization and death highlight the importance of timely and early rotavirus immunization of minority children. The HCUP database serves as a sensitive and robust data source for monitoring the impact of a rotavirus-immunization program in the United States.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume195
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)1117–1125
ISSN0022-1899
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Keywords

  • diarrhea
  • child
  • infant
  • patient discharge
  • rotavirus
  • rotavirus infections

Cite this

Fischer, T. K., Viboud, C., Parashar, U. D., Malek, M., Steiner, C., Glass, R. I., & Simonsen, L. (2007). Hospitalizations and Deaths from Diarrhea and Rotavirus among Children <5 Years of Age in the United States, 1993–2003. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 195(8), 1117–1125.
Fischer, Thea Kølsen ; Viboud, Cecile ; Parashar, Umesh D. ; Malek, Mark ; Steiner, Claudia ; Glass, Roger I. ; Simonsen, Lone. / Hospitalizations and Deaths from Diarrhea and Rotavirus among Children <5 Years of Age in the United States, 1993–2003. In: Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2007 ; Vol. 195, No. 8. pp. 1117–1125.
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Fischer, TK, Viboud, C, Parashar, UD, Malek, M, Steiner, C, Glass, RI & Simonsen, L 2007, 'Hospitalizations and Deaths from Diarrhea and Rotavirus among Children <5 Years of Age in the United States, 1993–2003', Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 195, no. 8, pp. 1117–1125.

Hospitalizations and Deaths from Diarrhea and Rotavirus among Children <5 Years of Age in the United States, 1993–2003. / Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Viboud, Cecile; Parashar, Umesh D.; Malek, Mark; Steiner, Claudia; Glass, Roger I.; Simonsen, Lone.

In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 195, No. 8, 2007, p. 1117–1125.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hospitalizations and Deaths from Diarrhea and Rotavirus among Children <5 Years of Age in the United States, 1993–2003

AU - Fischer, Thea Kølsen

AU - Viboud, Cecile

AU - Parashar, Umesh D.

AU - Malek, Mark

AU - Steiner, Claudia

AU - Glass, Roger I.

AU - Simonsen, Lone

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - Recently a new rotavirus vaccine was licensed in the United States and recommended for universal immunization of American children. The impact of the vaccine on a decrease in hospitalizations will take several years to assess and will be based on the availability of good baseline data on the disease. We used the largest US hospital discharge database available, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), to study national rates, trends, and risk factors for diarrhea- and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and deaths amongchildren <5 years of age, to establish a baseline against which vaccine implementation can be measured. Rotavirus remained the most important cause of pediatric diarrhea throughout the study period (1993–2003). When the data were extrapolated to the US population, rotavirus was estimated to be the cause of ∼60,000 hospitalizations and 37 deaths annually. Black infants had a significantly higher risk of being hospitalized with and dying from rotavirus disease early in life, compared with white infants (risk ratio [RR] for hospitalization by 12 months of age was 2.4, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.2–4.7; RR for death was 2.0, with a 95% CI of 1.7–2.5). Such racial differences in age and risk of rotavirus-associated hospitalization and death highlight the importance of timely and early rotavirus immunization of minority children. The HCUP database serves as a sensitive and robust data source for monitoring the impact of a rotavirus-immunization program in the United States.

AB - Recently a new rotavirus vaccine was licensed in the United States and recommended for universal immunization of American children. The impact of the vaccine on a decrease in hospitalizations will take several years to assess and will be based on the availability of good baseline data on the disease. We used the largest US hospital discharge database available, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), to study national rates, trends, and risk factors for diarrhea- and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and deaths amongchildren <5 years of age, to establish a baseline against which vaccine implementation can be measured. Rotavirus remained the most important cause of pediatric diarrhea throughout the study period (1993–2003). When the data were extrapolated to the US population, rotavirus was estimated to be the cause of ∼60,000 hospitalizations and 37 deaths annually. Black infants had a significantly higher risk of being hospitalized with and dying from rotavirus disease early in life, compared with white infants (risk ratio [RR] for hospitalization by 12 months of age was 2.4, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.2–4.7; RR for death was 2.0, with a 95% CI of 1.7–2.5). Such racial differences in age and risk of rotavirus-associated hospitalization and death highlight the importance of timely and early rotavirus immunization of minority children. The HCUP database serves as a sensitive and robust data source for monitoring the impact of a rotavirus-immunization program in the United States.

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KW - child

KW - infant

KW - patient discharge

KW - rotavirus

KW - rotavirus infections

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VL - 195

SP - 1117

EP - 1125

JO - Journal of Infectious Diseases

JF - Journal of Infectious Diseases

SN - 0022-1899

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ER -