The Emergence of the Bilateral Symmetry in Animals: A Review and a New Hypothesis

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Most biological organisms exhibit different kinds of symmetry; an Animal (Metazoa), which is our Darwinist ancestor, has bilateral symmetry, and many plants exhibit rotational symmetry. It raises some questions: I. How can the evolution from an undifferentiated cell without bilateral symmetry to a complex biological organism with symmetry, which is based on asymmetric DNA and enzymes, lead to the bilateral symmetry? II. Is this evolution to an organism with bilateral symmetry obtained by other factors than DNA and enzymatic reactions? The existing literature about the evolution of the bilateral symmetry has been reviewed, and a new hypothesis has been formulated based on these reviews. The hypothesis is that the morphogenesis of biosystems is connected with the metabolism and that the oscillating kinetics in the Glycolysis have played a role in the polarity of the biological cells and in the establishment of the bilateral symmetry in Animals.
Translated title of the contributionFremkomsten af spejbilledsymmetri i Animals: Et review og en ny hypotese
Original languageEnglish
Article number261
Issue number2
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 4 Feb 2021


  • Bilateral symmetry in Animals
  • Glycolysis in Animals
  • Metamophosis in cell polarity
  • Morphogen with Turing patterns

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