Female Entrepreneurship `a Brasileira: Entrepreneurship by Choice or Entrepreneurship by Force?

Denise Helena França Marques*, Nicia Raies Moreira de Souza, Shahamak Rezaei

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review

Abstract

In 2019, Brazil had approximately 53.4 million entrepreneurs, of which
60.2% were start-ups. The contingent of nascent entrepreneurs was 11.1
million people and in just one year it grew 390%, a fact that can be
explained, on the one hand, by the beginning of the economic recovery of the
country which, although timid, began arousing with the gross domestic
product closing the year 2019 with growth of 1.1%, and on the other hand,
by the slow cooling of the national unemployment rate that reached 11.0% in
the last quarter of 2019 (IBGE, 2019). Women have been occupying an
important space in the country’s entrepreneurial activities, with an initial
specific rate of entrepreneurship (total early-stage entrepreneurial activity
(TEA)) of 23.1%, similar to that of men, and established specific rates of
entrepreneurship (total establishing entrepreneurial activity (TEE)) of 13.9%
(GEM, 2019). Despite the enthusiasm brought by the numbers, it is necessary to pay attention to what are the entrepreneurial activities performed by
these women, since in a country like Brazil, transformations brought by
innovative thoughts, technological development, and expansion of education
are not privileges of the entire population. Besides the differences between
genders, even among women, the impact of changes in society occurs in
different ways, and the “pure” concept of entrepreneurship, associated with
innovation and the creation of new products and services, is valid for only a
portion of them, leaving to others the broader concept related to creativity,
risk, use of available resources, and economic sustainability in a context
where individual characteristics and unfavorable structural conditions are
intertwined (Haas, 2013). In this sense, the objective of this work is to present
the national reality of female entrepreneurship, contributing with the understanding of who are the Brazilian women entrepreneurs that correspond to these “pure” and broad concepts and, therefore, shed light on new
studies and research that can contribute with more accurate diagnoses about
these women.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
EditorsShahamak Rezaei, Jizhen Li, Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Veland Ramadani, Shqipe Gërguri-Rashiti
Number of pages21
Place of PublicationUK
PublisherEmerald Group Publishing
Publication date16 Jun 2021
Edition1
Pages191-211
Chapter11
ISBN (Print)9781800713277
ISBN (Electronic)9781800713284
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2021

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