Civil society and the ‘commanding heights’: The civil economy: Past, present and future

Roger Spear, Rob Paton

    Research output: Book/ReportReportCommissioned


    Civil society associations, including voluntary
    and community groups, trade unions, faithbased
    organisations, co-operatives and
    mutuals, have long influenced the economy.
    Civil society associations can run businesses and they
    can run organisations that aim to influence businesses.
    Together, these two sorts of association help to grow a
    civil economy. This paper reviews the history of the civil
    economy and looks ahead to how it may come to have a
    greater influence in the future.
    During industrialisation, many civil
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationLondon
    PublisherCarnegie UK Trust
    Number of pages38
    ISBN (Print)978-0-900259-62-3
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2010


    • Civil Society
    • Social economy, social enterprise, social entrepreneurship, social service, social innovation, EMES

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