Can training close the gender wage gap? Evidence from Vietnamese SMEs

Benedikte Bjerge, Nina Torm, Neda Trifkovic*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging
the skills gap between the labour force and what the private sector
demands. Little is known about how successful such training can be in
closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer-employee
panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects
wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be
firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated
with higher wages for trained women as compared to both untrained
women and men. However, we do not find a statistically significant wage
difference between trained women and men. Furthermore, the wage
increase is only associated with on-the-job training. Our findings indicate
that, at least in Vietnam, firm-sponsored on-the-job training could help
increase women’s labour productivity and thus contribute to closing the
gender wage gap.
Original languageEnglish
JournalOxford Development Studies
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)119-132
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Important note from the Publisher regarding the attached version of the article: “This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Oxford Development Studies on 08 Feb 2021, available online:”


  • Training
  • Vietnam
  • gender
  • sme
  • wage

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