The WHO, FAO, and OIE (the Tripartite) promote One Health (OH) as the guiding frame for national responses to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Little is known, however, about how much national action plans (NAPs) on AMR actually rely on the OH measures outlined by the Tripartite. The paper investigates attention to OH through a systematic content analysis of 77 AMR NAPs to discern regional and income patterns in the integration of these OH measures. Our findings suggest that (1) AMR NAPs almost universally address the three key sectors of OH, namely, human, animal, and environmental health; (2) AMR NAPs primarily apply OH measures in policies related to human health care, food production, hygiene, and agriculture, whereas the level of attention to OH measures in sanitation, aquaculture, waste management, and water governance is generally low and mainly present in NAPs from low-income countries; (3) AMR NAPs of low-income and lower-middle-income countries' display greater congruence with OH measures than NAPs from upper-middle-income and high-income countries; and (4) the level of OH attention on paper appears to matter little for the extent of multisectoral collaboration in practice.
- Antimicrobial resistance
- cross-country comparative study
- national action plans
- national policy-making
- One Health