Against bisected learning

Ernst Schraube, Athanasios Marvakis

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


As modern society developed, educational theory and practice has been informed by a concept of learning that divides content and method, the “what” and “how” of the act of learning. The “what” of learning is largely taken out of the hands of the learners, while their possibilities of participation in defining the process are confined to questions of “how” to learn. Based on critical action and learning theory, we analyze in this article how such bisection of learning undermines substantially the unfolding of the human potential to learn and present an approach as well as basic concepts toward a new non-bisected language of learning.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnual Review of Critical Psychology
Pages (from-to)434-452
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Dichotomy between subject matter and method of learning
  • Subjectivity and learning, agency
  • Persons’ conduct of everyday life
  • Student-centered learning
  • Problem-oriented project learning
  • Situated and participatory learning

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