A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with flexibility: Working Paper Series –Socially Innovative Knowledge Work

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This systematic review summarizes the evidence from studies examining risk and protective factors
associated with three types of employment flexibilities among knowledge workers. Data included 38
peer-reviewed studies. In order to gain an overview of the identified risk and protective factors, an
ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, risk factors included work
intensification and (techno)stress and self-responsibility in relation to autonomy versus control. At the
organizational and family level, unclear management, work/life conflict and external demands were
identified. At the societal level, working conditions and reduced bargaining power were identified.
Cultural-level risk includes gender differences. Protective factors at the individual level are coping
strategies and self-management and devotion/commitment to work. At the organizational and family
level, clear (e) management and collective identity were identified. The findings suggest flexibilities
entail great potential for improving work life however, only true if risk factors are mitigated.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationRoskilde
PublisherRoskilde Universitet
Number of pages31
ISBN (Electronic)2597-1360
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020
SeriesWorking Paper Series – Socially Innovative Knowledge Work
NumberSeptember 2020

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