A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching

J. Neuefeind, Anne Ladegaard Skov, J. E. Daniels, V. Honkimäki, Bo Jakobsen, Jette Oddershede, Henning Friis Poulsen

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Conventionally, the stretching of rubber is modeled exclusively by rotations of segments of the embedded polymer chains; i.e. changes in entropy. However models have not been tested on all relevant length scales due to a lack of appropriate probes. Here we present a universal X-ray based method for providing data on the structure of rubbers in the 2–50 Å range. First results relate to the elongation of a silicone rubber. We identify several non-entropic contributions to the free energy and describe the associated structural changes. By far the largest contribution comes from structural changes within the individual monomers, but among the contributions is also an elastic strain, acting between chains, which is 3–4 orders of magnitude smaller than the macroscopic strain, and of the opposite sign, i.e. extension of polymer chains in the direction perpendicular to the stretch. This may be due to trapped entanglements relaxing to positions close to the covalent crosslinks.
Original languageEnglish
JournalRSC Advances
Volume6
Issue number98
Pages (from-to)95910-95919
Number of pages10
ISSN2046-2069
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Cite this

Neuefeind, J., Skov, A. L., Daniels, J. E., Honkimäki, V., Jakobsen, B., Oddershede, J., & Poulsen, H. F. (2016). A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching. RSC Advances, 6(98), 95910-95919. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA22802J
Neuefeind, J. ; Skov, Anne Ladegaard ; Daniels, J. E. ; Honkimäki, V. ; Jakobsen, Bo ; Oddershede, Jette ; Poulsen, Henning Friis. / A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching. In: RSC Advances. 2016 ; Vol. 6, No. 98. pp. 95910-95919.
@article{c35882afdb8e41f1af9595b71eb39302,
title = "A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching",
abstract = "Conventionally, the stretching of rubber is modeled exclusively by rotations of segments of the embedded polymer chains; i.e. changes in entropy. However models have not been tested on all relevant length scales due to a lack of appropriate probes. Here we present a universal X-ray based method for providing data on the structure of rubbers in the 2–50 {\AA} range. First results relate to the elongation of a silicone rubber. We identify several non-entropic contributions to the free energy and describe the associated structural changes. By far the largest contribution comes from structural changes within the individual monomers, but among the contributions is also an elastic strain, acting between chains, which is 3–4 orders of magnitude smaller than the macroscopic strain, and of the opposite sign, i.e. extension of polymer chains in the direction perpendicular to the stretch. This may be due to trapped entanglements relaxing to positions close to the covalent crosslinks.",
author = "J. Neuefeind and Skov, {Anne Ladegaard} and Daniels, {J. E.} and V. Honkim{\"a}ki and Bo Jakobsen and Jette Oddershede and Poulsen, {Henning Friis}",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1039/C6RA22802J",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "95910--95919",
journal = "RSC Advances",
issn = "2046-2069",
publisher = "RSC Publishing",
number = "98",

}

Neuefeind, J, Skov, AL, Daniels, JE, Honkimäki, V, Jakobsen, B, Oddershede, J & Poulsen, HF 2016, 'A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching', RSC Advances, vol. 6, no. 98, pp. 95910-95919. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA22802J

A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching. / Neuefeind, J.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Daniels, J. E. ; Honkimäki, V.; Jakobsen, Bo; Oddershede, Jette; Poulsen, Henning Friis.

In: RSC Advances, Vol. 6, No. 98, 2016, p. 95910-95919.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching

AU - Neuefeind, J.

AU - Skov, Anne Ladegaard

AU - Daniels, J. E.

AU - Honkimäki, V.

AU - Jakobsen, Bo

AU - Oddershede, Jette

AU - Poulsen, Henning Friis

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Conventionally, the stretching of rubber is modeled exclusively by rotations of segments of the embedded polymer chains; i.e. changes in entropy. However models have not been tested on all relevant length scales due to a lack of appropriate probes. Here we present a universal X-ray based method for providing data on the structure of rubbers in the 2–50 Å range. First results relate to the elongation of a silicone rubber. We identify several non-entropic contributions to the free energy and describe the associated structural changes. By far the largest contribution comes from structural changes within the individual monomers, but among the contributions is also an elastic strain, acting between chains, which is 3–4 orders of magnitude smaller than the macroscopic strain, and of the opposite sign, i.e. extension of polymer chains in the direction perpendicular to the stretch. This may be due to trapped entanglements relaxing to positions close to the covalent crosslinks.

AB - Conventionally, the stretching of rubber is modeled exclusively by rotations of segments of the embedded polymer chains; i.e. changes in entropy. However models have not been tested on all relevant length scales due to a lack of appropriate probes. Here we present a universal X-ray based method for providing data on the structure of rubbers in the 2–50 Å range. First results relate to the elongation of a silicone rubber. We identify several non-entropic contributions to the free energy and describe the associated structural changes. By far the largest contribution comes from structural changes within the individual monomers, but among the contributions is also an elastic strain, acting between chains, which is 3–4 orders of magnitude smaller than the macroscopic strain, and of the opposite sign, i.e. extension of polymer chains in the direction perpendicular to the stretch. This may be due to trapped entanglements relaxing to positions close to the covalent crosslinks.

U2 - 10.1039/C6RA22802J

DO - 10.1039/C6RA22802J

M3 - Journal article

VL - 6

SP - 95910

EP - 95919

JO - RSC Advances

JF - RSC Advances

SN - 2046-2069

IS - 98

ER -

Neuefeind J, Skov AL, Daniels JE, Honkimäki V, Jakobsen B, Oddershede J et al. A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching. RSC Advances. 2016;6(98):95910-95919. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA22802J