Zamenhofs fremtidshorisonter – Esperanto og homaranismo som kosmopolitiske utopier

Katrine Damberg & Amalie Corvinius Jakobsen

Studenteropgave: Fagmodulprojekt


This project examines the history of L.L. Zamenhof’s (1859-1917) utopian projects, Esperanto and
Homaranism, through the historiographical concepts developed by Reinhart Koselleck, historical
experience (erfahrungsraum) and future expectations (Erwartungshorizont). We employ as our
theoretical point of departure the notion that past and future are interrelated – making use of
Koselleck’s concepts in order to explore how these interrelations may be read into our historical case.
Our study further draws on sociological theories concerning cosmopolitanism, as we examine how
Zamenhof’s ideas correlate to perspectives on cosmopolitanism.
We find, that Zamenhof’s utopias are dependent on a holistic ideal of humanity, which appears to
arise from – among other factors - experiences of the world as increasingly interconnected due to
technological and industrial changes. Furthermore, we find that these utopian projects of world peace
emanate from Zamenhof’s personal experiences of segregation, including a wave of anti-Semitic
pogroms in the eastern European provinces of the Russian empire.
Our analysis shows that Zamenhof had ambivalences throughout his life – that in his work he
fluctuated between solving particular Jewish problems and accommodating universalism, as he was
influenced by the Haskalah as well as the Enlightenment. This study concludes, that Homaranism as
Zamenhofs final utopia, may be considered an attempt of merging universalist Kantian
cosmopolitanism and the particularism of Jewish cosmopolitanism in a third cosmopolitan position
in which these ambivalences were reconciled.

UddannelserHistorie, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Bachelor
Udgivelsesdato17 dec. 2016
Antal sider23
VejledereJakob Egholm Feldt


  • Zamenhof
  • Esperanto
  • Homaranismo
  • kosmopolitisme
  • Koselleck
  • erfaringsrum
  • forventningshorisont
  • fremtidsforestillinger
  • utopi
  • konstruerede sprog
  • jødedom
  • haskalah
  • mendelssohn
  • oplysning
  • kant