Trilemmaet i Angola: økonomisk vækst, lighed og kampen for demokrati

Emil Gjelstrup Martensen, Nicolai Alexis Roed Ibsen, Sebastian Stark Danielsen & Frederik Egekær Thomsen

Studenteropgave: Semesterprojekt


The civil war in Angola ended in 2002 and the country has experienced great economic growth ever since. We will examine how the economic BOOM has had an impact on the economic equality in Angola and how equality/inequality plays a role in the development of democracy in Angola. Angola has had the same political party (MPLA) and the same president since 1979. The first election in Angola was held in 1992, although there were allegations of corruption. In 2008 the first real democratic elections were held. This was six years after the end of the civil war in 2002. The latest election was held in 2012 and the ruling party, MPLA, won yet again. Opposition parties and NGOs have all expressed criticism of both of the elections in 2008 and 2012. The criticism includes media coverage favoring the government and critical journalists are often met with defamation law suits. Despite the lack of political stability in Angola, the structural framework, required to create growth and promote the democratic process. The democracy has been strengthened through a national constitution. The economic growth has not solved the humanitarian problems in Angola. The country has only experienced a minimal decrease in the income inequality from 2000 to 2009, despite the great economic growth. The Gini-index in Angola is still among the highest in the world. This means that the majority of the population isn’t benefitting from the economic BOOM. Investments in sectors like health and education don’t follow the rate of the economic growth, thus creating a massive problem for the majority of the population in Angola; a population where half of the people are under 15 years. Education and health has, according to the UN, a clear relation to the development of democracy. According to the UN, education, health and democracy are all important factors when it comes to the respect of human rights. Looking at Angola, there’s still a long way to fulfill the UN's 2015 goals. Goals that work towards reducing hunger, having a higher cure rate of illness and disease, strengthening education. Goals that, if fulfilled, will ultimately strengthen the human rights of the citizens. NGOs report of problems in Angola related to the constitutional rights of freedom of assembly and freedom of expression. The reports explain how critical journalists are being harassed and how peaceful demonstrations against the government are met with violence. To explain the development in Angola we have used theories of democracy and regime types and we have used theory of income distribution, equality/inequality and poverty. This way we use some more quantitative terms when we define democracy. Quantitative terms are also used when we look at how the increase in economic growth affects the equality/inequality in the Angola. We try to find causal relations between the various theories and if that’s not possible, we try to identify some areas where there may be causality. The lack of quantitative empirical data from Angola is critical in regards of solving or answering problem we have posed. There’s also uncertainty about the data that is produced by the country itself. We have chosen to respond to this issue by using international sources that are publicly considered to be reliable. At the same time we explain the purposes of our sources and the underlying organization's intentions. This way we illuminate the purposes of our sources and thus we see the produced data in this light. This way we can use our document studies of tertiary documents as indirect field studies, something that would not otherwise have been an option. In conclusion we’ve found that, despite of the economic growth in Angola, the country still lacks a more equal economic distribution. A way to solve this problem could be achieved by investments in health and education. It’s also important to mention that 50% of the population in Angola still lives below the poverty line, thus making it unable to demand democracy. The lack of respect for democratic principles and democratic procedures, which is written in the constitution, is undermining the development of democracy in the country. Despite political initiatives, for example how a president can stay for a maximum of 10 years in power, there are still major issues related to corruption and violation of national and international rights.

UddannelserBasis - Samfundsvidenskabelig Bacheloruddannelse, (Bachelor uddannelse) Basis
Udgivelsesdato24 jun. 2014


  • Demokrati
  • Angola
  • Indkomstfordeling
  • Økonomisk vækst