Sustainable expansion of biogas from secondary inputs in the European Union

Sebastian Karol Peczek & Anine West Selander

Studenteropgave: Bachelorprojekt


This project examines the possibilities for the EU to create favourable conditions for a biogas expansion with secondary resources as input material. Biogas is a biofuel that has a number of environmental benefits, the most important one being recycling of soil nutrients, such as phosphorus, at the same time being a safe means to treat waste and thus contributing to creating a circular economy. The case of Germany as the largest biogas producer in the EU is examined. It is determined that the main driver for the development is the large degree of support through feed-in tariff policies and allowing energy crops to be the main input. It is also determined that a transition to secondary resources is necessary. Based on interviews with national experts from Germany and Denmark, the following issues related to the transition are highlighted: low methane yield of manure-based biogas, not including input vendors in remuneration, limited incentives for separation of biowaste, lack of incentives for using rest heat from biogas, lacking differentiation between biomethane and natural gas in the law, missing infrastructure and low RE quota in transport sector and treating digestate in the same way as untreated manure in the policies. Creating favourable conditions for development of sustainable biogas requires following prerequisites from the EU: targets for bio-waste separation; involvement of multiple stakeholders in the international guidance for the FIT scheme and/or further incentivisation of anaerobic digestion through its agricultural policies; harmonising rules for digestate content across countries; common sustainability standard for biogas.

UddannelserBasis - Humanistisk-Teknologisk Bacheloruddannelse, (Bachelor uddannelse) Bachelor
VejledereCristina C. Landt


  • biogas
  • EU
  • waste
  • manure
  • energy crops