Substantialverber

Morten Klockmann Nielsen

Studenteropgave: Speciale

Abstrakt

English abstract In this thesis I introduce a new grammatical term which I think is missing in the Danish grammar. The term is ‘substantialverber’, not to be mistaken by the English term ‘substantial verbs’. My term covers verbalized nouns – one example is if you say “Han panikkede” instead of “Han gik i panik” or “Jeg frokoster” instead of “Jeg spiser frokost”. In order to introduce my term I have examined the following three questions: 1. Is verbalizing nouns a new phenomenon in Danish? 2. If there is a need for a new grammatical term for this phenomenon, is ‘substantialverber’ then a possibility? 3. How are “substantialverber” derived in modern Danish? As I have shown using four Danish grammars published from 1826 to 1970 verbalizing nouns is not a new phenomenon in Danish, but there has just never been a specific term for it. On this background there is a need for a new grammatical term, and I’ve argued why ‘substantialverber’ is the natural term as it is a counterpart to the Danish term ‘verbalsubstantiver’, i.e. verbal nouns. Examining how “substantialverber” are derived in Danish I’ve analyzed both new verbs in Danish from 1975 to 2007 from the database of Dansk Sprognævn (The Danish Language Committee) and my own collection of verbs, collected mainly during the year 2008. The most important results from my analysis are as follows: About half of the new verbs in Danish from Dansk Sprognævn are somehow English loans, and about 85 per cent of the “substantialverber” among the new verbs are derived from a concrete noun. Among my own examples I can conclude that the type of noun that are most commonly verbalized are the so-called countable innexuals (in Danish “tællelige inneksuale substantiver”). Most of the new “substantialverber” are not derived by a productive suffix but are derived only by adding an ‘-e’ to the noun to get the verb in infinitive. These verbs can’t be semantically decoded a priori, but often the context will help us to make the semantic decoding of the verb. Furthermore my conclusion is that it is sometimes very difficult to state whether or not a verb is actually a “substantialverbum”, i.e. if the verb is actually derived from a noun or whether the verb was first – or the two were introduced at the same time.

UddannelserDansk, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat
SprogDansk
Udgivelsesdato7 maj 2009

Emneord

  • substantivtype
  • substantialverber
  • orddannelse
  • verbalisering
  • grammatisk betegnelse
  • hønen eller ægget
  • afledning
  • grammatik
  • substantiv
  • verbum
  • GDS
  • både-og
  • substantialverbum
  • fuzzy