Strategi for CO2-reduktion i den individuelle varmeforsyning: Strategy for CO2 reduction in the individual heat supply

Tina Gliese Schjerling

Studenteropgave: Semesterprojekt

Abstrakt

The project is made in cooperation with Lolland municipality, which has set a series of ambitious goals in relation to reducing the CO2 emissions in the municipality. One of the challenges faced by the municipality in this connection is to achieve a cleaner heat supply. The collective heat supply is almost 100% CO2-neutral, as the district heating plants primarily use CO2-neutral fuel. However, there are a great number of households outside the collective heat supply, which are heated by means of an oil-fired boiler. It is precisely these households that are subject matter for this project. Overall, the project encompasses two levels, namely a technological level and an implementation level. At the technological level, seven different heating technologies that can function as a supplement or an alternative to an oil-fired boiler, which is presupposed to be from 1985, have been selected. Following heating technologies have been selected: Air-to-water heat pump, water-to-water heat pump, solid fuel boiler, wood pellet boiler, solar heating system, biofuel boiler and a new oil-fired boiler. The criteria for the selection have been that these technologies emit less greenhouse gases than an oil-fired boiler from 1985, they are compatible with the systems of heat emission of the houses and they are cost competitive to the current oil-fired boiler. Financial calculations have been carried out for all the heating technologies on the basis of the annuity principle, as well as calculations of the energy efficiency of the technologies, and calculations of the technologies’ annual emissions of greenhouse gases. These calculations show that the annual costs are lowest when using the air-to-water pump, followed by the solid fuel boiler, solar heat combined with the existing oil-fired boiler, water-to-water pump, wood pellet boiler, the current oil-fired boiler alone, solar heat combined with wood pellet boiler, a new oil-fired boiler and the current oil-fired boiler with a new biofuel boiler. The greenhouse gas emissions are lowest when using the biofuel plants, followed by the air-to-water pump, water-to-water pump, solar heat combined with the existing oil-fired boiler, a new oil-fired boiler and highest when using the current oil-fired boiler alone. On the level of implementation, it will be examined how Lolland municipality can, through strategic communication, optimise their chances in encouraging as many citizens as possible of the individual heat supply to adopt a heating technology that reduces greenhouse gases. Seven individual qualitative interviews have been carried out with citizens of Lolland municipality, which at present warm up their houses by means of an oil-fired boiler. The interviews seek to uncover at which level citizens have set up barriers in relation to an implementation of a cleaner way of heating, but also where there might be any possible incentives. The questions for the interview have been designed on the basis of the classical communication theory “diffusion of Innovations” and a theoretical campaign model, which springs from theory and empirical results from behaviourism and social psychology. The interviews enable a segmentation of the target group and a specification of the factors, which hinder the target group from choosing to implement a heating technology that reduces greenhouse gases. The analysis shows especially that there is a significant lack of knowledge of the existing alternative options to the oil-fired boiler. Furthermore, the citizens do not know where to obtain guidance concerning alternative heating options. The analysis also shows that the target groups place great emphasis on the fact that a heating technology must not be demanding and it must be cheap in relation to the current oil-fired pump. The identified barriers and incentives for the choice of alternative heating technologies of the target groups, as well as their weighting of which heating technologies seem to be attractive, are incorporated in the communication planning, so that the barriers are minimised and incentives maximised. It is recommended that the communication product focuses on implementation of the heating technologies that can contribute in meeting the environmental objectives of the municipality in the best way possible. At the same time, they have to be attractive for the citizens and there will be given instructions on how the municipality should address to the citizens efficiently with this information. In the project’s final recommendations to Lolland municipality, it will be considered how the further work with the communication planning should proceed in order to achieve the best results possible.

UddannelserTekSam - miljøplanlægning, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Bachelor el. kandidat
SprogDansk
Udgivelsesdato3 sep. 2008
VejledereTyge Kjær & Jan Andersen

Emneord

  • kampagne
  • CO2 reduktion
  • CO2-emission
  • varmeforsyning