Spanien - En splittet erindring

Thomas Brorholm, Anja Lykke Knudsen, Maja Heegaard, Anna Karin Gunnarsson Nolsøe, Christoffer Trosborg Stassen & Tobias Løndorf Rosenkrands

Studenteropgave: Semesterprojekt


In this project we examine the long-term effects of politics of memory within a nation. Specifically we investigate the impact of the Pacto de Olvido (The Pact of Forgetting) on the Spanish people and the conditions of its cohesiveness. The decision to forget the violent past was made in the aftermath of 36 years of Francoist dictatorship, and was a crucial step towards the establishment of modern democracy in Spain. Because of the Pact of Forgetting the legacy of Francisco Franco is still very vivid in modern day Spain. Statues, street names and monuments commemorating the dictator and his supporters still exist in a society where a large group of people still remember the suffering caused by the oppression and francoist violence. Thus the pact has to some degree divided individual memory from collective memory, and hence divided Spanish society in two. The pact and the Law of Amnesty from 1977 means that people who have lost relatives during the civil war or the dictatorship have no option of seeking justice for their loses, and it also means that many people haven’t realised the severity of the atrocities committed by the francoist leadership. In 2007 the Ley de Memoria Histórica (The Law of Historical Memory) was passed while the socialist party PSOE was in power. The law granted economic compensation for victims of the dictatorship, removal of francoist symbols and economic support for the investigation into and uncovering of mass graves. However, when the conservative party won the election in 2011 they obstructed part of the law by withholding financial support. This case exemplifies today’s Spanish division, and shows that what helped establish a stable modern democracy also to some degree continued the oppression of anti-francoists that started with the end of the Spanish Civil War. In our work we include the theories about dealing with the past of Theodor Adorno, Aleida Assmann and Anette Warring. We have also included Benedict Anderson to discuss the effect of politics of memory for the imagined community. The essays of Carsten Humlebæk are used in the investigation of the newer Spanish history and the transition to democracy. These theories are working together in our analysis to discover the arguments for and ideas with a pact of forgetting contra a law of open memory.

UddannelserBasis - Humanistisk Bacheloruddannelse, (Bachelor uddannelse) Basis
Udgivelsesdato17 jan. 2014
VejledereMia Münster Svendsen


  • Franco dictatorship
  • divided nation
  • Pacto de Olvido
  • Memory law of 2007
  • Valley of the fallen
  • Spain