The purpose of this literature study is to provide a comprehensive explanation of how immune
checkpoint pathways are currently being used in order to treat patients with stage III-IV
melanoma. It is known that the immune system is capable of recognizing and eliminating
cancer by the help of T cells. However, cancer can evade the immune surveillance response by
inhibiting immune checkpoints like PD-1 and CTLA-4. Drugs, which can block immune
checkpoints, such as anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1, among others, are in early development and
have shown that they can release an anti-tumor immunity resulting in durable cancer
regressions. Nevertheless, the complex biology of immune checkpoint pathways still contains
a lot of unanswered questions, which contradict the positive and negative effects of the
checkpoint-blocking drugs used in patients with melanoma.
This paradox has led to the conclusion that although the checkpoint inhibition drugs work for
some patients, they can be ineffective for others. Furthermore, in the cases where the drugs do
work, the patient can potentially encounter severe adverse effects.
Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, melanoma stage III-IV, CTLA-4, PD-1, anti-CTLA4,
|Uddannelser||Molekylærbiologi, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) KandidatAlmen Biologi, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat|
|Vejledere||Morten Erik Møller|