Pros and cons of checkpoint inhibition immunotherapy

Amanda Borup Jakobsen & Katrine Nygaard Jørgensen

Studenteropgave: Kandidatprojekt


The purpose of this literature study is to provide a comprehensive explanation of how immune checkpoint pathways are currently being used in order to treat patients with stage III-IV melanoma. It is known that the immune system is capable of recognizing and eliminating cancer by the help of T cells. However, cancer can evade the immune surveillance response by inhibiting immune checkpoints like PD-1 and CTLA-4. Drugs, which can block immune checkpoints, such as anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1, among others, are in early development and have shown that they can release an anti-tumor immunity resulting in durable cancer regressions. Nevertheless, the complex biology of immune checkpoint pathways still contains a lot of unanswered questions, which contradict the positive and negative effects of the checkpoint-blocking drugs used in patients with melanoma.
This paradox has led to the conclusion that although the checkpoint inhibition drugs work for some patients, they can be ineffective for others. Furthermore, in the cases where the drugs do work, the patient can potentially encounter severe adverse effects.

UddannelserAlmen Biologi, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) KandidatMolekylærbiologi, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat
Antal sider40
VejledereMorten Erik Møller


  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • anti-PD-1
  • anti-CTLA-4
  • Immunotherapy
  • Melanoma