Since Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan gained independence in the beginning of the 1990s due to the collapse of the Soviet Union, natural resource endowments have had significant effects on the countries’ political, economic, and social development performances. However, this thesis argues that the two countries’ development performances have diverged. Whereas Turkmenistan shows significant signs of the ‘resource curse’, Kazakhstan has been able to sustain a high economic performance and superior political development in relation to Turkmenistan. In contrast to Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan has engaged in economic reforms and political control has been less firm. This thesis suggests that these divergent development choices and paths have been determined by 1) varying levels of internal political contestation, 2) varying geo-political positions, as well as 3) varying geo-economic positions. Where Turkmenistan only has a relevant energy-strategic position, in relation to European, Russian and Chinese import of oil and gas, Kazakhstan not only has a high energy-strategic position but furthermore a central geo-political and geo-economic position, factors, that throughout the transition and beyond, have enhanced economic and political reform.
|Uddannelser||Offentlig Administration, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) KandidatInternationale Udviklingsstudier, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat|
|Udgivelsesdato||1 nov. 2007|
- rentier states
- Ressource Curse