Mikrolån dig ud af fattigdom! – En kritisk gennemgang af mikrolån som udviklingsstrategi i Marokko

Tanja Siemen Christiansen, Thor Kjer-Kristiansen, Monica Kanjanapa Magnussen, Josefine Lindskov Birgens & Sofia Lotz Samuelsen

Studenteropgave: Kandidatprojekt

Abstrakt

Microfinance has especially since the 1980s been used as a socioeconomic tool in ‘development countries’ to help people out of poverty. By taking a microloan or a microcredit, the aim is that poor people can start their own business and in this way, help themselves out of poverty. In 2007, Morocco was one of the most successful microfinance sectors in the world. However, little is written in English and Danish literature about the microfinance sector as a development strategy in Morocco. This project examines how two microfinance institutions in Morocco’s representation of ‘the problem’ poverty, can be understood in a postcolonial frame and by critical studies of microfinance as a development strategy.
At first, the project seeks to explain the critical studies on microfinance as a development strategy. Carol Bacchi’s approach to discourse analysis is secondly used to find how the strategy of two microfinance institutions represent and define certain poverty problems. This analysis is based on activity reports of the two microfinance institutions: INMAA and Al Amana. Finally, this project seeks to examine how these discourses in development can be understood in global systems of meaning. The latter is in a postcolonial and critical frame discussed to understand how development work with microfinance can be problematized.
It is found that INMAA and Al Amana both discursively construct systems of meaning that problematize poverty in a strong Economical discourse. In the case of Al Amana, this is especially articulated together with a Social Responsibility discourse, Empowerment discourse and Human Rights’ discourse. It is also found that the discourses of INMAA and Al Amana are enrolled in a global neoliberal paradigm that maintain postcolonial power relations. These global dominated discourses are criticized for representing the poor as a symptom of a wrong market strategy, that reproduces the poor in the position as the underdeveloped ‘Other’ – as well as it produces structural conditions where poverty remains as the responsibility of the individual.
This discourse analysis has been useful by creating awareness of potential harmful and unsustainable strategies, as a result, a development approach should include self reflexivity, dialogue and understanding of the context’s complexity and culture.
Keywords: Morocco, microfinance, microcredit, microloan, development, poverty, socioeconomic, social responsibility, empowerment, human rights, postcolonialism, neoliberalism

UddannelserKultur- og Sprogmødestudier, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat
SprogDansk
Udgivelsesdato29 maj 2017
Antal sider70
VejledereLene Bull Christiansen

Emneord

  • mikrolån
  • mikrofinans
  • Marokko
  • udvikling
  • fattigdom
  • socioøkonomisk
  • empowerment
  • socialt ansvar
  • menneskerettigheder
  • postkolonialisme
  • neoliberalisme