"Hvorfor er man her ik'? Det er sgu for at blive integreret." - en historiserende feltanalyse af forandringer i feltet for lærerarbejde i folkeskolen

Trine Andersen & Paw Skjoldan

Studenteropgave: Speciale

Abstrakt

English summary In 2006 the municipality of Copenhagen started a new model for integration. The aim was a more even dispersal of ethnic minority pupils in Copenhagen schools. The model was called The Copenhagen Model and consisted of two initiatives. On one hand, schools with a large number of ethnic minorities should try to attract more ethnic Danes (A-Schools), while on the other hand, schools with a large number of ethnic Danes should try to attract more ethnic minorities (B-Schools). The reason for implementing the model was an attempt to improve the technical skills of ethnic minorities as the PISA-examination had shown that they did worse than ethnic Danes. Further motivation for the model’s use was to create a better understanding and direct integration between ethnic minorities and the ethnic majority. It is the B-School initiative that is subject of our dissertation. Inspired by Bourdieu’s method and theory we look at how preschool class teachers manage their practice after the model has been introduced to their schools; furthermore, we look at how this affects the ethnic minorities in their classes. The key method we use in our engagement with the subject is Bourdieu’s “Historical field analysis”. In our dissertation we look at how historical changes/struggles between different positions in what we call “The Field of the Teacher Post” affect the practice of the preschool class teachers. Through interviews and observation we have isolated some of the main changes that seem to affect the preschool class teachers practice, and consequently influence their ethnic minority pupils. The ethnic minority pupils are predominantly worse of in the classes than the ethnic Danes in the B-Schools. The reasons for this, that we can say something about with the field analysis, are: - First of all there have been political changes that have created an increase of work for teachers. This is that they have to do a lot more documentation on what they do, for example they have to make plans for every pupil. This means teachers have less time for pupils, and pupils with ethnic minority backgrounds become an extra challenge in a workday that has become more stressful for teachers. The extra challenge is that they often require extra and different teaching. - Political changes have affected the role of parents in relation to the school. The authorities have adopted market mechanisms to a higher degree, meaning that parents have adopted the attitude of “consumers” towards the school. The have gone from a very minimal role through the 60’s and 70’s where school contact was mainly the teacher giving information to the parents, whereas today the parents are expected to participate to high degree in school life. This development on one hand affects the preschool class teacher, because the consumer parents crave more from the school than parents did before. On the other hand a high level of parent involvement has become natural for them mminorities don’t live up the expected participation, which gives the teacher extra work trying to involve them and give’s parents a lower status towards the classes which affects their children’s possibilities in the class. - Teaching of ethnic minorities has changed over the years, but has only become a subject since the 80´s. Scientific agents in “The Field of the Teacher Post” have spoken for a more multicultural approach towards ethnic minorities, recognizing the value of their culture. This has always been a small position in the field, but when a new government of the Social Democrats and The Radicals took over in 1993 teaching ethnic minority pupils in their native tongue, which can be seen as a multicultural approach, became law. However, this policy was changed again by the Conservative and Liberal party when they came to power; the main approach for teaching ethnic minorities was now the teaching of Danish in Danish and a greater focus on Danish culture. This was partly influenced by PISA-examinations which concluded that among ethnic minority pupils Danish literacy was very poor. The preschool class teachers have all adopted the increased focus on Danish. Generally speaking, preschool class teachers whose approach closely resembles the multicultural model seem to exert a more positive influence on ethnic minority pupils, enabling them to interact more easily in the social life of the class. In contrast, teachers who take the attitude that " 'they' have to do like 'us' ", and who therefore neglects the specificities of these children's lives and cultures, seem to have a less positive impact in enabling a child's integration into the class social life. As we have shown many of the often political changes in “The Field of the teacher Post” make it more difficult to be an ethnic minority in Danish schools than previously. Spreading ethnic minorities to B-schools does not in itself seem to benefit the ethnic minorities whereas, for example, a multicultural pedagogy in relation to these children seems to matter, though this pedagogy is becoming a smaller position in “The Field of the Teacher Post”. The main focus of this dissertation is to examine how (mainly political) society changes affect the person on the 'shop-floor': examining the preschool class teachers practice says something about the teaching field as it today. This dissertation both looks at how and why changes occur in the field of the Teacher Post, and can thus be viewed as a critical perspective of the developments in the field, developments that have very real effects both for teachers and the children they work with. Bourdieu's historical field analysis not only enables us to say something about the preschool class teacher's practice, it also allows us to offer an historical macro-perspective on what influences this practice. This in turn allows us to say something about why the 'B-school' initiative turns out as it does, as previously shown. Because we look at the field of the teaching post, we look at changes in the field that effect all teachers and preschool class teachers; this means that the teachers practice can be seen to bear witness to the changes in the field. At the same, this means that all teachers are influenced by the changes in the field so that it is likely that similar practice can be found in other schools. Bourdieu is not of the opinion that structures in different fields are determinents for the agent’s practice, though he does think that their practice is heavily influenced by the structures in the fields, which they often follow unconciously. This can also be seen to explain the variation of different preschool class teacher’s practice.eaning that they also question when parents don’t participate enough. Many parents of the ethnic

UddannelserForvaltning, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat
SprogDansk
Udgivelsesdato7 feb. 2008
VejledereHanne Warming Nielsen

Emneord

  • Integration
  • Bourdieu