From human waste to human investment – Improving the energy efficiency in the Bio Centres and finding new implementation strategies through fieldwork

Møhlenfeldt Hemmingsen & K. Sofie

Studenteropgave: Speciale

Abstrakt

Abstrakt Via feltarbejde i 2014, hovedsagelig i Kibera, undersøger dette speciale: Hvordan kan energi-effektivitet og bæredygtighed i Umande Trusts Biocentre forbedres og hvordan kan rege-ringsstøtte og nye samarbejdsmuligheder understøtte denne udvikling. Indledningsvis forklares biocentrenes tekniske baggrund og deres sociale kontekst. Biocen-tre er kombinerede sanitets- og energiløsninger, der producerer biogas fra humant affald. Herudover er biocentrene i højere og højere grad centre for sociale aktiviteter, der tilveje-bringer nye services til slumområder. Baseret på et teoretisk afsæt i force field analyse, multi-level governance, energieffektivitets-analyse og stakeholder analyse foreslår specialet en række tiltag til at øge energieffektivite-ten og dermed bæredygtigheden i Biocentrene. Tilføjelse af andet organisk materiale for at forøge biogasudbyttet; omrøring af indholdet for at øge udbyttet og sikre en fuldstændig fer-mentering; udvidet rørføring for at sikre tilstrækkelige aftagere til gassen, etablering af udtag for restproduktet for at lette dets brug som gødning. I lyset af Kenyas forfatning fra 2010, der ændrer magtfordelingen mellem det nationale og det lokale niveau udforsker specialet dette som afsæt for nye muligheder for implementering af biocentrene igennem et case-studie: Skolerne i Makueni County. Analysen påpeger store muligheder for samarbejde mellem Umande Trust og ”County Gover-nment, ” og anbefaler fremgangsmåder for det konkrete samarbejde. Abstract Based on fieldwork mainly in Kibera in 2014 this thesis sets out to examine: How can the en-ergy efficiency and sustainability be enhanced in Umande Trust Bio Centres and how can gov-ernmental support and new collaborations sustain such development? The technical background and social setting of the Bio Centres is explained. Bio centres are combined energy and sanitation units producing biogas from human waste. Additionally, the Bio Centres are becoming a hub for social change bringing new services to the informal set-tlements. Based on force field analysis, multi-level governance, energy efficiency analysis and Stake-holder analysis the thesis suggests a number of measures to increase the energy efficiency and thereby the sustainability in the Bio Centres. Adding other organic matter to enhance the biogas yield; stirring the content of the digester to enhance the yields and ensure complete fermentation; extend piping to ensure sufficient users of the gas; establishing outlet for the residue to ease use of residue as fertiliser. In light of the 2010 constitution of Kenya, which initiates new divisions of power between the national and local level, the thesis explores this as a possibility for new areas of imple-mentation of the bio centres, explored through a case study: The schools in Makueni County. The analysis points to major possibilities for cooperation between Umande Trust and the county government, and sets out recommendations for the nature of the cooperation.

UddannelserTekSam - miljøplanlægning, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat
SprogEngelsk
Udgivelsesdato10 dec. 2014
VejledereLybæk Rikke

Emneord

  • sanitation
  • Bio Centre
  • umande trust
  • makueni
  • biogas
  • energy efficiency
  • ngo
  • sustanability
  • kibera
  • kenya