EIA in the Road Sector: Possibilities and Constraints in Tanzania

Mali Brogaard

Studenteropgave: Speciale


This thesis examines the effects of government initiatives to regulate the impact of the two forces: roads and population pressure, which contribute to deterioration of the environment in Tanzania. In Tanzania environmental impact assessment (EIA) is being widely practised as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with development and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigation measures. The object of this thesis is to draw attention to the limitations of the project-level environmental impact assessment (EIA) with regard to contributing to sustainable development within the planning process. First it is documented that barriers for the effective operation of the EIA system, are found within the implementation of rules, laws and regulations relevant to EIA in the Road Sector in Tanzania. After documenting the extent of these challenges light is shed on barriers found within the implementation of criteria for reaching set EIA goals in the Road Sector. Finally, the attitudes of the professionals in the EIA system are documented to have an impact on the effective operation of the system. Results show that the rules, laws and regulations are poorly implemented due to i.a. the ineffective decentralisation of environmental responsibility and the powerlessness of the EIA tool in securing coerciveness to recommended legislative mitigation measures. Results also indicate that implementation of criteria for reaching EIA goals is challenged by poorly institutionalised conceptions of these criteria throughout the EIA system. Furthermore, challenges are found in the partial lack of a common “thoughts pattern” regarding the environmental planning system and the decision-making ideal among professionals in the EIA system. Based on a collective interpretation of these challenges it is concluded that the success of the government’s recommendations of widening the scope of EIA to include environmental assessment of all new policy, plans and programmes (Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)) will be highly dependent on changing the mind-sets and motivation of top personnel at ministerial level, as well as promoting awareness at regional and local level. Furthermore, a major factor that will influence on the increased success of EIA, and a requirement for the success of SEA, is found to be the establishment and enforcement of land-use plans and regulations, as well as a change in the national energy supply and enforcement of existing environmental laws. Without these changes, population increase, resulting from improved roads, will continue to result in unsustainable land-use and use of natural resources.

UddannelserInternationale Udviklingsstudier, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) KandidatTekSam - miljøplanlægning, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat
Udgivelsesdato28 maj 2008


  • International Development
  • Road Sector
  • Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Tanzania
  • Institutional Analysis
  • Regulation and Planning