Digitale IT-metoder til borgerinddragelse

Eva Kirstine Fabricius

Studenteropgave: Speciale


This thesis aims to reflect how digital IT, like homepages, social media such as Facebook, GPS-tracking, SMS etc., can be used in an urban planning process as a tool to involve different groups of the population and make it more attractive for them to participate in the planning process. During the last 15-30 years the political focus on citizen empowerment and participation in urban planning has intensified. By involving the citizens early in the process and give them the chance to express their ideas, there is a greater possibility of obtaining commitment, acceptance and ownership of urban planning. Furthermore a planning process that involves multiple groups of citizens have a bigger chance of covering more aspects as the citizens can participate with different opinions and knowledge that the urban planner or other experts does not possess. To illustrate how digital IT can facilitate the participation of different groups of citizens, a variety of cultural geography and social anthropology tools are being used in the thesis. The thesis consists of a theoretical part, describing different perspectives and concepts on the importance of citizens participation in the planning process, and describes the general challenges of such participation This is covered through studies of theorist Charles Baudelaire, Walter Benjamin, Guy Debord, Michel de Certeau, Kevin Lynch and Patsy Healey. Based on the theory drawn from these authors, the thesis starts by grouping them into two; one being the planner and the other the citizens, which is then divided into smaller characteristic groups. The theories used are also pointing out the risk attached to the planner by having the “bird’s eye view” only on the city, like a map, focussing on the producing strategy, structure and architecture defined by the theoretical concept - ‘place’. This top down point of view by the planner could entail that the citizens either doesn´t accept the ‘strategies’ or makes ‘shortcuts’ and navigates the city environment using their own tactics. By moving around at the street level of the city in their everyday life, theoretically defined as touring, the citizens are transforming the planners ‘place’ into ‘space’. The thesis points out that not only is it important to involve the citizens, but also that a planner that through detours, is seeing the city from the street level and is being derived by it, has a better chance to understand the city and to communicate with the citizens. Danish Statistics shows that almost everyone, across age groups, have mobile phones, many of them smartphones and that more than 4/5 of the 16 - 74 years of age uses internet on a daily basis. By looking at the demographic of Denmark there is a wide spread age difference from the provincial country sites to the bigger cities. Being a Municipality, that are being cut in their budgets and at the same time wants to involve citizens, the thesis argues that they need to be able to identify the relevant groups of citizens for the planning process to make this as open as possible and by excluding as few as possible. This is not only necessary from a budget constrain perspective but also important in order obtain the best possible citizens acceptance in the planning process. After identifying the relevant citizens or groups, the Municipalities can choose between, different methods to engage and make it attractive for the citizens to be involved. To substantiate the theories empirically, case studies are selected and categorised, and selection criteria explained. To qualify the case studies these are conducted by 12 interviews with relevant stakeholders in the different case studies. This is supplemented by research of literature, internet and other source of materials. Based on the theories, theoretical concepts, case studies and interviews the thesis analyses and creates a list of fictive personalities representing the different groups of citizens that usually are not involved through traditional citizens participations methods. These fictive personalities are combined in one diagram with the different digital IT methods used in the case-studies, describing what methods are attractive for which groups of the citizens population. This leads to the main conclusion of the thesis being that digital IT successfully can be used as a parallel process and exceeds in combination with a traditional face-to-face meetings with the citizens. Finally the thesis is reviewing the process and results, followed by a summery and the thesis is finally put into perspective.

UddannelserPlan, By og Proces, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) KandidatGeografi, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat
Udgivelsesdato29 jan. 2013
VejledereBo Elling


  • Borgerinddragelse
  • Guy Debord,
  • 3D-modellering
  • Fotosafari
  • Digital IT
  • citizen empowerment
  • Michel de Certeau
  • Patsy Healey
  • GPS-tracking
  • Sociale medier
  • Kevin Lynch
  • SMS
  • Hjemmeside