On the 4th of July 1187 the crusader army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem was crushed. King Guy of Lusignan had mustered all the available troops in the kingdom in the hope of stopping the invasion of Sultan Saladin. The armies of the king and the sultan clashed at the horns of Hattin. At Hattin Saladin surrounded and defeated the crusader forces and captured King Guy and the Holy Cross. Three months later Saladin captured the holy city of Jerusalem. After the fall of Jerusalem, Saladin moved on to conquer almost all of the crusader possessions in the Levant.
In the academic debate the question remains: What caused the collapse of the kingdom of Jerusalem in 1187? Was the defeat a result of internal strife among the leading lords of the kingdom? Or was a long-term defense of the crusader kingdoms in the Levant simply not a possibility due to the long distance from Europe? In the academic debate King Baldwin IV’s and King Guy of Lusignan’s political leadership of the Kingdom of Jerusalem have seen criticism.
This study seeks to address the following research question; ”Can King Baldwin IV’s and King Guy’s political leadership of Jerusalem from 1174-1187 be seen as weaker than the previous leadership of the Kingdom? And can the two king’s regencies be seen as the cause of the defeat at Hattin?” This project seeks to answer this research question through an investigation of the available source material and the historiographical discussion of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1099 to 1187.
This study shows that King Baldwin IV was a competent military and political leader. Under Baldwin IV’s leadership the city of Jerusalem was secure and Saladin’s successive attempts at invading the kingdom were unsuccessful. The picture changed in 1186 where Guy of Lusignan with the help of Baldwin IV’s sister Sybilla took the crown in a political coup. This sparked internal strife between king Guy and the kingdoms nobility, which indirectly made King Guy choose the wrong cause of military action the night before the battle at Hattin.
|Uddannelser||Historie, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat|
|Udgivelsesdato||2 jan. 2019|
- Balduin IV