Civile i uniform - En undersøgelse af disciplinbrud blandt soldater ved Tunestillingen i sikringsperioden (1914-19)

Ditte Maria Rømer Hermansen & Louise Kofod Ahmt

Studenteropgave: Speciale

Abstrakt

Although Denmark’s position during World War One was neutral, several men were called in to protect this neutrality. In the present dissertation (master thesis) we have set out to examine the possible reasons for the increased numbers of disciplinary offences committed by private soldiers during World War One. More precisely we have focused on four soldiers stationed at Tunestillingen, an addition to the existing defence system of Copenhagen running from Roskilde Fjord to Køge Bugt which stood from 1915‐19. Because our theoretical outset was heavily inspired by the New Cultural History we have included both the subjective everyday story of people (the micro level), as well as the larger political structures (the macro level). In continuation of our theoretical standpoint we chose to apply many of the main elements of Microhistory to our methodological approach. This means that we mainly worked according to the method ”thick description” in order to get as close to the lived life as possible. Our theoretical and methodological approach also influenced what type of historical remains we chose to work with. I.e. our area of analysis was the remaining files on four soldiers’ disciplinary offences found in the military archives in the Public Record Office. The specific cases on private no. 23/1915 Carl Christian Joachim Hansen, 30/1917 Oluf Mathias Hansen, 460/1916 Marius Julius Olsen and 478/1917 Niels Peder Jensen were carefully chosen after searching the archives for months and hereby establishing an overview and larger overall knowledge of the various types of disciplinary offences and punishments. But because four cases are not nearly enough to represent the majority and due to minor lack of information in the chosen four cases, we have also included other soldiers in the analysis. Hence we additionally base our analysis on other cases from the archive as well as the published memoirs of several other soldiers. In the dissertation the four soldiers’ stories are presented in boiled down versions in order to allow the reader to follow our process of research. Moreover the stories were written with emphasis on the narrative aspect because of our intentions for their further promotion. The presentation of the analysis is structured by problem areas deduced in the process such as: absence in its various versions, drunkenness, female visits, disrespect and disobedience, theft and mutiny. Taking into account the high degree of discontentment and the increasing numbers of disciplinary offences committed, it could easily have come to a revolution like it did in e.g. Russia. The possible explanations for why it did not evolve into a full-blooded revolution, and what did actually come of the disciplinary offences, are the aspects discussed in continuation of the problem areas. In the wake of World War One a serious change of attitude towards the military system followed. In 1917 this led to a new law which made it possible to refuse military service, in 1919 to changes in the law about military punishments, in 1920 to the abolishment of the defence system of Copenhagen and in 1922 to a new law about the military defences. As it is, the soldiers were able to influence the political decisions and vice versa. Our conclusion is that the reasons behind the disciplinary offences were e.g.: the low salary combined with the high prices and the impossibility to care for one’s family, how the time spent in military service made it difficult to uphold a civilian job, the inexperience of many of the superiors, the tediousness of building and manning the fortification, the spartan accommodation, poor food and the strict rules for the soldiers’ general behaviour. Together these problem areas sat the limits for the soldiers’ conditions and possibilities to control and continue their individual lives. In connection with the further promotion of our dissertation and analysis we have thought the four soldiers’ stories into the context of an ongoing project about revitalizing the defence system of Copenhagen for other than military purposes.

UddannelserHistorie, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat
SprogDansk
Udgivelsesdato31 mar. 2009
VejledereJørgen Vogelius

Emneord

  • Tunestillingen
  • auditørsager
  • sikringsperioden
  • neutralitetspolitik
  • forsvarspolitik
  • militærnægtelse
  • hærloven 1909
  • revolution
  • ny kulturhistorie
  • Første Vedernskrig
  • militærhistorie
  • menige soldater
  • Tunestyrken
  • Københavns Befæstning
  • thick description
  • mikrohistorie
  • Køge Bugt
  • disciplinbrud
  • Rigsarkivet
  • sikringsstyrken
  • værnepligt
  • Roskilde