Botulinum toxin immunoresistance in dystonia medical application

Fabian Barrientos, Goda Snieckute & Alexandra Avram

Studenteropgave: Semesterprojekt


Botulinum Toxin type A is a protein produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum that exists in six different serotypes. The ability of this toxin is to inhibit the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and as a consequence of that the muscle signaling will be disrupted. The usage of BoNT-A has been considered a good alternative in minimizing the muscle disorders pain and posture but without curing the disease. The treatment with BoNT-A implicates a number of numerous injections in order to sustain symptom control and thus makes the patient vulnerable in developing neutralizing antibodies that interact against the neurotoxin ability of working. Blocking antibodies are the natural defense against the toxin and the complexing proteins present in the BoNT-A. Three different types of brands, Xeomin, Botox and Dysport are used as treatments for improving the life of patience affected by dystonia. The results presented in the review conclude that Botox and Dysport contain complexing proteins, whereas Xeomin only contains the active neurotoxin and therefore reduce the immunoresistance. This review is a brief summary of the available information today, considering the immunoresistance against the BoNT-A in the patients affected by Dystonia.

UddannelserBasis - International Naturvidenskabelig Bacheloruddannelse, (Bachelor uddannelse) Basis
Udgivelsesdato18 jun. 2012


  • Complexing proteins
  • BoNT-A
  • Blocking antibodies
  • Botulinum neurotoxin
  • Immunoresistance