Bleeding Copper – A Struggle for Inclusive Growth in Zambia

Christina Ihler Madsen, Comfort Adjaka, Kristian Anton Stender & Mette Sørensen

Studenteropgave: Semesterprojekt


Since independence, Zambia has attempted to achieve a level of growth that involves a majority of the population. Kenneth Kaunda‟s restructuring towards inclusive growth were unsuccessful because, 1) like most Sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia was highly dependent on copper. Consequently, fluctuations in copper prices were very influential for the nation‟s social and economic development. 2) The elite and tribal relations that were constitutive for the nation also became a hindrance to economic growth. The maintenance of stability and tribal balancing became central for the Zambian government. Since Kaunda, subsequent political leaders have attempted to navigate the Zambian economy towards more inclusive and stable economic growth. After a long period of economic decline, high poverty level, a growing informal sector and a decline in copper prices, the IMF and the WB pressured Zambia to privatize some of its firms including the copper sector in order to boost the sector that once served as the nation‟s fiscal backbone. In this thesis, we analyze the different factors and relations that have led to privatization and the consequences of privatization for social, economic and political development.

UddannelserInternationale Udviklingsstudier, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Bachelor el. kandidat
Udgivelsesdato12 jun. 2014
VejledereThorkil Casse


  • Inclusive growth
  • state capacity
  • tribal balancing
  • privatization
  • Informality
  • political settlement
  • copper
  • Zambia