This report provides an academic evaluation of the current anti-terror measures discussed in academic literature and within the urban environment of New York City (NYC). The literature review is of general academic debates on the intersection of anti-terror measures and public life. This is followed by a state of the art evaluation on NYC using times square and the Hudson River Greenway (HRG) as case studies. The literature review reveals debates concerning the fortifcation of cities, the visibility of alternative ways to protect, as well as the implications these may have. This is bound up in the approaches taken to anti-terror measures: Risk Management, which developed over time in three different
waves, and Resilience Management, which has come out of risk management. The state of the art assessment provides an account of anti-terror measures in NYC, based on themes from the literature review.
The perspective from which we develop these understandings is from Socio-Technical Systems (STS). We argue that the system of anti-terror has implications and consequences for other systems within that place. In doing so, we establish that the issues in the anti-terror system in NYC, which is based hardening methods, has highlighted the lack of understanding that systems are interconnected. In particular, how non-vehicle mobilities intersect with public spaces and anti-terror. What is state of the art in anti-terror measures ultimately does not provide an account of new trends for defending against terror within NYC, precisely because of the fact hard measures are still being used. What is changing
are the conversations about how other systems that are now being affected by terror attacks can be protected in ways that do not fortify the urban environment. There is a new weight being given, amongst relative stakeholders, to the balancing of protecting their city, whilst maintaining enjoyable public spaces as they evolve.
|Uddannelser||Spatial Design and Society, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Kandidat|