Backdoor Diplomacy, Patron State Policy, and Public Diplomacy

Ask Gudmundsen, Morten Mikkelsen & Karadogan Emrah

Studenteropgave: Semesterprojekt


Most studies of unrecognised states have concentrated on understanding the nature of these ‘unreal’ states, how their presents in the international community changes our perception of sovereignty or why they exists in the first place. This study instead sets about to examine a rarer topic concerning unrecognised states, their foreign policy capabilities. Though unrecognised by most of the world, states such as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a piece of de facto independent Armenian land inside Azerbaijan, certainly participate in international diplomacy. Having seven permanent representative offices – or embassies if you will – around the world, this study finds that in certain ways Nagorno-Karabakh is able to conduct foreign policy. Through an exploratory case study we are able to show that Nagorno-Karabakh is able to conduct a limited foreign policy, though identifying their most important policy aims and diplomatic relations. Most of Nagorno-Karabakh’s foreign policy is conducted through their patron state Armenia, a limited number of very secret diplomatic meetings, political lobbying on lower political levels in important states through there representative offices and – maybe the most notable – through PR diplomacy where public information supporting Nagorno-Karabakh’s aims is spread through friendly minded organisations and the Armenian diaspora.

UddannelserGlobal Studies, (Bachelor/kandidatuddannelse) Bachelor el. kandidat
Udgivelsesdato18 dec. 2013
VejledereTobias Hagmann


  • Armenia
  • Sovereignty
  • Azerbaijan
  • Minsk Group
  • Nagorno-Karabakh
  • de facto
  • quasi-state
  • unrecognised
  • foreign policy
  • states
  • Caucasus