Virtual Project Teams

Distant Collaborative Practice and Groupware Adaptation

Pernille Bjørn

    Publikation: Bog/antologi/afhandling/rapportPh.d.-afhandlingForskning

    Resumé

    Samarbejde over afstand er ikke noget nyt, da mennesker har samarbejdet over geografiske afstande gennem tusindvis af år. I løbet af de sidste to årtier har den teknologiske udvikling forbedret betingelserne for tætkoblet samarbejde mellem geografisk distribuerede personer. Alligevel er samarbejde over afstand stadig en kompleks størrelse, der ofte resulterer i misforståelser funderet i de begrænsende muligheder for teknologi-medieret kommunikation. Misforståelser, der i værste fald fører til, at samarbejdet bryder sammen. Samarbejde over afstand involverer derfor både sociale og teknologiske udfordringer. For at forbedre vilkårene for samarbejde over afstand er det derfor nødvendigt at udforske de betingelser og behov, der gør sig gældende, når geografisk adskilte personer skal samarbejde. Derfor er genstandsfeltet for denne afhandling de sociale og teknologiske udfordringer, der opstår i virtuelle projektgrupper med geografisk adskilte projektdeltagere, der indgår i et tætkoblet samarbejde over afstand. Formålet er at lokalisere de specifikke faktorer, betingelser og udfordringer, der gør sig gældende i virtuelle projektgrupper med det mål at medvirke til at forbedre vilkårene for samarbejde over afstand. Det empiriske grundlag for afhandlingen består af tre casestudier af i alt seks virtuelle projektgrupper. To af grupperne er situeret i en industriel organisation, og de resterende fire er situeret i en uddannelseskontekst. Metodisk benytter afhandlingen fortolkende casestudier og aktionsforskning som tilgange til at analysere det empiriske materiale. Selve afhandlingen består af en sammenfatning og en samling af syv artikler, der hver bidrager med dybdegående analyser af specifikke dele af det empiriske materiale. Således er de specifikke resultater fra undersøgelserne præsenteret og argumentet i de specifikke artikler, hvorimod selve sammenfatningen søger at sammenkoble resultaterne fra artiklerne til et samlet hele. I sammenfatningen udforskes to hovedforskningsspørgsmål. Det første forskningsspørgsmål retter sig imod de organisatoriske aspekter, der gør sig gældende i den proces, hvorved groupware-teknologi bliver en del af virtuelle projektgruppers samarbejdspraksis. Her er et af hovedresultaterne, at processen, hvorved groupware bliver en del af samarbejdspraksisen, kan anskues som en udvidelses- og opretningsproces af deltagernes teknologiske perspektiver og rammer, hvilket inkluderer gensidig tilpasning af samarbejdspraksis og teknologi i tre trin. Det andet forskningsspørgsmål retter sig imod etableringen, udviklingen og transformationen af den sociale kontekst i virtuelle projektgrupper. Her er et af hovedresultaterne, at den sociale kontekst i virtuelle projektgrupper bliver etableret gennem forhandling af fælles mening på tre niveauer, der medvirker til at bygge bro mellem kulturelle, arbejdsmæssige, faglige, tidslige og teknologiske forskelligheder, hvilket er de aspekter, der typisk bliver associeret med geografisk adskillelse.
    OriginalsprogEngelsk
    Udgivelses stedRoskilde University
    ForlagRoskilde Universitet
    Antal sider258
    StatusUdgivet - 2006
    NavnDatalogiske Skrifter
    Nummer108
    ISSN0109-9779

    Citer dette

    Bjørn, P. (2006). Virtual Project Teams: Distant Collaborative Practice and Groupware Adaptation. Roskilde University: Roskilde Universitet. Datalogiske Skrifter, Nr. 108
    Bjørn, Pernille. / Virtual Project Teams : Distant Collaborative Practice and Groupware Adaptation. Roskilde University : Roskilde Universitet, 2006. 258 s. (Datalogiske Skrifter; Nr. 108).
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    title = "Virtual Project Teams: Distant Collaborative Practice and Groupware Adaptation",
    abstract = "Humans have been collaborating across geographical boundaries for thousands of years. Nevertheless, distant collaboration today remains problematic, complicated and prone to failures. This thesis investigates distant collaborative practice in a particular setting: closely coupled collaboration in virtual project teams whose members are spread across various geographical locations. The aim is to understand the specific factors, conditions and challenges underpinning such situations. This thesis describes, analyses and discusses three in-depth empirical studies on the practices and use of groupware technology in six real-life virtual teams, two in industry and four in education, applying interpretative research and action research methods. Two main lines of investigation are pursued: the first involves an examination of the organisational issues related to groupware adaptation in virtual project teams, while the second looks at the social context and practices of virtual project teams. Two of the key findings are 1) that the process of groupware adaptation by virtual project teams can be viewed as a process of expanding and aligning the technological frames of the participants, which includes mutual changes in both the technology structures and the collaborative practice; and 2) that establishing the social context within virtual project teams comprises negotiations of shared meaning bridging discontinuities typically associated with geographical distribution such as culture, work practices, professional disciplines, time differences and technology. This thesis comprises a general introduction, referred to as the summary report, and seven research papers, which deal in detail with the results and findings of the empirical cases. The summary report provides a general introduction to the research methods used, the empirical cases conducted, the research field on virtual teams and, last, it relates the findings and results across cases and papers in respect to the two main lines of investigation: organisational issues of groupware adaptation and the challenges of establishing and developing the social context within virtual project teams.",
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    Bjørn, P 2006, Virtual Project Teams: Distant Collaborative Practice and Groupware Adaptation. Datalogiske Skrifter, nr. 108, Roskilde Universitet, Roskilde University.

    Virtual Project Teams : Distant Collaborative Practice and Groupware Adaptation. / Bjørn, Pernille.

    Roskilde University : Roskilde Universitet, 2006. 258 s. (Datalogiske Skrifter; Nr. 108).

    Publikation: Bog/antologi/afhandling/rapportPh.d.-afhandlingForskning

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    Bjørn P. Virtual Project Teams: Distant Collaborative Practice and Groupware Adaptation. Roskilde University: Roskilde Universitet, 2006. 258 s. (Datalogiske Skrifter; Nr. 108).