Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific combinations of polymorphisms in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism-related genes were associated with outcome in 5-FU-based adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer. Methods: We analyzed two cohorts of 302 and 290 patients, respectively, one cohort for exploratory analyses and another cohort for validating the exploratory analyses. A total of ten polymorphisms in genes involved in 5-FU pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics were studied. End points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival. Multifactor dimensionality reduction was used to identify genetic interaction profiles associated with outcome. Results: Low-expression alleles in thymidylate synthase (TYMS) were associated with decreased DFS and overall survival (DFS: hazard ratio [HR] exploration 2.65 [1.40-4.65]; p = 0.004, HR validation 1.69 [1.03-2.66]; p = 0.03). A specific multifactor dimensionality reduction derived combination of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and TYMS polymorphisms was associated with increased DFS (HR exploration 0.69 [0.49-0.98]; p = 0.04, HR validation 0.66 [0.45-0.95]; p = 0.03). Specific combinations of functional polymorphisms in DPYD and TYMS were demonstrated to be associated with DFS and overall survival in patients receiving adjuvant 5-FU-based treatment. Specifically high TYMS expression alleles seem to be associated with decreased DFS.