Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in the community: a case-control study in patients in general practice, Denmark 2009-2011

Lillian Marie Søes, H.M. Holt, B. Bottiger, H.V. Nielsen, Viggo Andreasen, M. Kemp, K.E.P. Olsen, S. Ethelberg, K Mølbak

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


To identify risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Danish patients consulting general practice with gastrointestinal symptoms, a prospective matched case-control study was performed; cases (N = 259) had positive cultures for toxigenic C. difficile and controls (N = 455) negative cultures. Data were analysed by conditional logistic regression. In patients aged ≥2 years (138 cases), hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 8·4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·1–23], consumption of beef (OR 5·5, 95% CI 2·0–15), phenoxymethylpenicillin (OR 15, 95% CI 2·7–82), dicloxacillin (OR 27, 95% CI 3·6–211), and extended spectrum penicillins (OR 9·2, 95% CI 1·9–45) were associated with CDI. In patients aged <2 years none of these were associated with CDI, but in a subgroup analysis contact with animals was associated with CDI (OR 8·1, 95% CI 1·0–64). This study emphasizes narrow-spectrum penicillins, and suggests beef consumption, as risk factors for CDI in adults, and indicates a different epidemiology of CDI in infants
TidsskriftEpidemiology and Infection
Udgave nummer07
Sider (fra-til)1437
Antal sider1.448
StatusUdgivet - 2014


  • Antibiotics
  • case-control study
  • children
  • community-associated Clostridium difficile infection
  • zoonoses

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