The growing problem of resistance to antimicrobial chemotherapy was discussed by participants at the February 1995 workshop at Emory University on population biology, evolution, and control of infectious diseases. They discussed the nature and source of this problem and identified areas of research in which information is lacking for the development of programs to control of the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. Particular attention was given to theoretical (mathematical modeling) and empirical studies of the within and between-host population biology (epidemiology) and the evolution of microbial resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Suggestions were made about the kinds of models and data needed, and the procedures that could be employed to stem the ascent and dissemination of resistant bacteria. This article summarizes the observations and recommendations made at the 1995 meeting and in the correspondence between participants that followed. It concludes with an update on the theoretical and empirical research on the between- and within-host population biology and evolution of resistance to antimicrobial chemotherapy most of which has been done since that meeting.