Background: Few population-based epidemiological studies of adults have examined the relationship between air pollution and leukaemias. Methods: Using Danish National Cancer Registry data and Danish DEHM-UBM-AirGIS system-modelled air pollution exposures, we examined whether particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) averaged over 1, 5 or 10 years were associated with adult leukaemia in general or by subtype. In all, 14,986 adult cases diagnosed 1989–2014 and 51,624 age, sex and time-matched controls were included. Separate conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, assessed exposure to each pollutant with leukaemias. Results: Fully adjusted models showed a higher risk of leukaemia with higher 1-, 5- and 10-year-average exposures to PM2.5 prior to diagnosis (e.g. OR per 10 µg/m3 for 10-year average: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32), and a positive relationship with 1-year average BC. Results were driven by participants 70 years and older (OR per 10 µg/m3 for 10-year average: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.58). Null findings for younger participants. Higher 1-year average PM2.5 exposures were associated with higher risks for acute myeloid and chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia. Conclusion: Among older adults, higher risk for leukaemia was associated with higher residential PM2.5 concentrations averaged over 1, 5 and 10 years prior to diagnosis.
Bibliografisk noteFunding Information:
Funding information The research was funded by Nordforsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare (Project #75007: NordicWelfAir - Understanding the link between Air pollution and Distribution of related Health Impacts and Welfare in the Nordic countries). The funding source had no involvement in the study design, collection, analysis, interpretation, writing and decision to submit for publication. NORDFORSK is a research funding organisation under the Nordic governments.
© 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Cancer Research UK.