Production, hatching success and surface ornamentation of eggs of calanoid copepods during a winter at 57°N

Benni Winding Hansen, Guillaume Drillet, Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen, Thomas Flarup Sørensen, Majken Them Tøttrup

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

Close to 50 species of marine Calanoid copepods have been reported to produce diapause eggs (Engel and Hirche in J Plankton Res 26:1083-1093, 2004); eggs that are viable but require a refractory phase before they hatch, sometimes after months. Diapause eggs are often described as morphologically different with respect to egg membrane ultrastructure and having a thicker egg shell with surface ornamentation as opposed to the smooth shell found in subitaneous eggs that hatch within days (Belmonte in J Mar Syst 15:35-39, 1998; Chen and Marcus in Mar Biol 127:587-597, 1997; Castro-Longoria in Crustaceana 74:225-236, 2001). Egg production rates, egg surface ornamentation, and hatching success were monitored in large aquaculture fish enclosures during winter with close to zero water temperatures (N57°). Surprisingly, all female copepods (Acartia spp.-presumably A. tonsa, and Centropages hamatus) produced eggs all through the winter with no obvious pattern with respect to light, temperature and food availability, and no diapause eggs were observed. However, individual females produced several categories of eggs with or without surface spines even within the same egg batch as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four egg categories were distinguishable: ‘no spines', smooth eggs; ‘short spines', 5-15 μm long; ‘truncated spines', with the spine tips cut-off <10 μm long; and ‘long spines', up to 30 μm long. All egg categories remained unchanged with respect to surface structures from when we took them out of the incubation bottles until they hatched. In general, the frequency of ‘no spines' was 10-40%, and most eggs were ornamented with ‘short-' or ‘long spines'. Further, a given egg can be ornamented with all types of surface spines simultaneously, which might even be a fifth egg category. The different egg categories were all able to hatch within days when exposed to normoxic conditions suggesting that they were subitaneous.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftMarine Biology
Vol/bind157
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)59-68
Antal sider10
ISSN0025-3162
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2010

Citer dette

Hansen, Benni Winding ; Drillet, Guillaume ; Møbjerg Kristensen, Reinhardt ; Sørensen, Thomas Flarup ; Them Tøttrup, Majken. / Production, hatching success and surface ornamentation of eggs of calanoid copepods during a winter at 57°N. I: Marine Biology. 2010 ; Bind 157, Nr. 1. s. 59-68.
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title = "Production, hatching success and surface ornamentation of eggs of calanoid copepods during a winter at 57°N",
abstract = "Close to 50 species of marine Calanoid copepods have been reported to produce diapause eggs (Engel and Hirche in J Plankton Res 26:1083-1093, 2004); eggs that are viable but require a refractory phase before they hatch, sometimes after months. Diapause eggs are often described as morphologically different with respect to egg membrane ultrastructure and having a thicker egg shell with surface ornamentation as opposed to the smooth shell found in subitaneous eggs that hatch within days (Belmonte in J Mar Syst 15:35-39, 1998; Chen and Marcus in Mar Biol 127:587-597, 1997; Castro-Longoria in Crustaceana 74:225-236, 2001). Egg production rates, egg surface ornamentation, and hatching success were monitored in large aquaculture fish enclosures during winter with close to zero water temperatures (N57°). Surprisingly, all female copepods (Acartia spp.-presumably A. tonsa, and Centropages hamatus) produced eggs all through the winter with no obvious pattern with respect to light, temperature and food availability, and no diapause eggs were observed. However, individual females produced several categories of eggs with or without surface spines even within the same egg batch as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four egg categories were distinguishable: ‘no spines', smooth eggs; ‘short spines', 5-15 μm long; ‘truncated spines', with the spine tips cut-off <10 μm long; and ‘long spines', up to 30 μm long. All egg categories remained unchanged with respect to surface structures from when we took them out of the incubation bottles until they hatched. In general, the frequency of ‘no spines' was 10-40{\%}, and most eggs were ornamented with ‘short-' or ‘long spines'. Further, a given egg can be ornamented with all types of surface spines simultaneously, which might even be a fifth egg category. The different egg categories were all able to hatch within days when exposed to normoxic conditions suggesting that they were subitaneous.",
author = "Hansen, {Benni Winding} and Guillaume Drillet and {M{\o}bjerg Kristensen}, Reinhardt and S{\o}rensen, {Thomas Flarup} and {Them T{\o}ttrup}, Majken",
year = "2010",
doi = "10.1007/s00227-009-1295-x",
language = "English",
volume = "157",
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journal = "Marine Biology",
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Production, hatching success and surface ornamentation of eggs of calanoid copepods during a winter at 57°N. / Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Møbjerg Kristensen, Reinhardt; Sørensen, Thomas Flarup; Them Tøttrup, Majken.

I: Marine Biology, Bind 157, Nr. 1, 2010, s. 59-68.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Production, hatching success and surface ornamentation of eggs of calanoid copepods during a winter at 57°N

AU - Hansen, Benni Winding

AU - Drillet, Guillaume

AU - Møbjerg Kristensen, Reinhardt

AU - Sørensen, Thomas Flarup

AU - Them Tøttrup, Majken

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Close to 50 species of marine Calanoid copepods have been reported to produce diapause eggs (Engel and Hirche in J Plankton Res 26:1083-1093, 2004); eggs that are viable but require a refractory phase before they hatch, sometimes after months. Diapause eggs are often described as morphologically different with respect to egg membrane ultrastructure and having a thicker egg shell with surface ornamentation as opposed to the smooth shell found in subitaneous eggs that hatch within days (Belmonte in J Mar Syst 15:35-39, 1998; Chen and Marcus in Mar Biol 127:587-597, 1997; Castro-Longoria in Crustaceana 74:225-236, 2001). Egg production rates, egg surface ornamentation, and hatching success were monitored in large aquaculture fish enclosures during winter with close to zero water temperatures (N57°). Surprisingly, all female copepods (Acartia spp.-presumably A. tonsa, and Centropages hamatus) produced eggs all through the winter with no obvious pattern with respect to light, temperature and food availability, and no diapause eggs were observed. However, individual females produced several categories of eggs with or without surface spines even within the same egg batch as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four egg categories were distinguishable: ‘no spines', smooth eggs; ‘short spines', 5-15 μm long; ‘truncated spines', with the spine tips cut-off <10 μm long; and ‘long spines', up to 30 μm long. All egg categories remained unchanged with respect to surface structures from when we took them out of the incubation bottles until they hatched. In general, the frequency of ‘no spines' was 10-40%, and most eggs were ornamented with ‘short-' or ‘long spines'. Further, a given egg can be ornamented with all types of surface spines simultaneously, which might even be a fifth egg category. The different egg categories were all able to hatch within days when exposed to normoxic conditions suggesting that they were subitaneous.

AB - Close to 50 species of marine Calanoid copepods have been reported to produce diapause eggs (Engel and Hirche in J Plankton Res 26:1083-1093, 2004); eggs that are viable but require a refractory phase before they hatch, sometimes after months. Diapause eggs are often described as morphologically different with respect to egg membrane ultrastructure and having a thicker egg shell with surface ornamentation as opposed to the smooth shell found in subitaneous eggs that hatch within days (Belmonte in J Mar Syst 15:35-39, 1998; Chen and Marcus in Mar Biol 127:587-597, 1997; Castro-Longoria in Crustaceana 74:225-236, 2001). Egg production rates, egg surface ornamentation, and hatching success were monitored in large aquaculture fish enclosures during winter with close to zero water temperatures (N57°). Surprisingly, all female copepods (Acartia spp.-presumably A. tonsa, and Centropages hamatus) produced eggs all through the winter with no obvious pattern with respect to light, temperature and food availability, and no diapause eggs were observed. However, individual females produced several categories of eggs with or without surface spines even within the same egg batch as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four egg categories were distinguishable: ‘no spines', smooth eggs; ‘short spines', 5-15 μm long; ‘truncated spines', with the spine tips cut-off <10 μm long; and ‘long spines', up to 30 μm long. All egg categories remained unchanged with respect to surface structures from when we took them out of the incubation bottles until they hatched. In general, the frequency of ‘no spines' was 10-40%, and most eggs were ornamented with ‘short-' or ‘long spines'. Further, a given egg can be ornamented with all types of surface spines simultaneously, which might even be a fifth egg category. The different egg categories were all able to hatch within days when exposed to normoxic conditions suggesting that they were subitaneous.

U2 - 10.1007/s00227-009-1295-x

DO - 10.1007/s00227-009-1295-x

M3 - Journal article

VL - 157

SP - 59

EP - 68

JO - Marine Biology

JF - Marine Biology

SN - 0025-3162

IS - 1

ER -