Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

Background: Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is responsible for adverse health effects in adults and children. Relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources and health effects of PM in indoor air. Objective: To identify sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. Methods: We conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM2.5 and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. Results: The concentration of PM2.5 was 2.8 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19% (95% CI, 15-23%) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16% (95% CI, 9-27%) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant's bedroom. Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32% (95% CI, 12-54%) higher PM2.5 concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant's bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM2.5 concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. Conclusions: We identified several sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. The concentrations can be reduced by use of a range hood for frying, by not using candles, a fireplace or a stove, by increasing the distance between the bedroom and the smoking area and by opening windows in houses of smokers. Smoking is a strong predictor of fine PM in infants' bedrooms and should be avoided.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftEnvironmental Research
Vol/bind111
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)87-93
ISSN0013-9351
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jan. 2011

Citer dette

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title = "Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark",
abstract = "Background: Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is responsible for adverse health effects in adults and children. Relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources and health effects of PM in indoor air. Objective: To identify sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. Methods: We conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM2.5 and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. Results: The concentration of PM2.5 was 2.8 times (95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19{\%} (95{\%} CI, 15-23{\%}) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16{\%} (95{\%} CI, 9-27{\%}) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant's bedroom. Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32{\%} (95{\%} CI, 12-54{\%}) higher PM2.5 concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant's bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM2.5 concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. Conclusions: We identified several sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. The concentrations can be reduced by use of a range hood for frying, by not using candles, a fireplace or a stove, by increasing the distance between the bedroom and the smoking area and by opening windows in houses of smokers. Smoking is a strong predictor of fine PM in infants' bedrooms and should be avoided.",
author = "Ole Hertel",
year = "2011",
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pages = "87--93",
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Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark. / Hertel, Ole.

I: Environmental Research, Bind 111, Nr. 1, 01.2011, s. 87-93.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark

AU - Hertel, Ole

PY - 2011/1

Y1 - 2011/1

N2 - Background: Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is responsible for adverse health effects in adults and children. Relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources and health effects of PM in indoor air. Objective: To identify sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. Methods: We conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM2.5 and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. Results: The concentration of PM2.5 was 2.8 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19% (95% CI, 15-23%) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16% (95% CI, 9-27%) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant's bedroom. Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32% (95% CI, 12-54%) higher PM2.5 concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant's bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM2.5 concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. Conclusions: We identified several sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. The concentrations can be reduced by use of a range hood for frying, by not using candles, a fireplace or a stove, by increasing the distance between the bedroom and the smoking area and by opening windows in houses of smokers. Smoking is a strong predictor of fine PM in infants' bedrooms and should be avoided.

AB - Background: Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is responsible for adverse health effects in adults and children. Relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources and health effects of PM in indoor air. Objective: To identify sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. Methods: We conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM2.5 and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. Results: The concentration of PM2.5 was 2.8 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19% (95% CI, 15-23%) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16% (95% CI, 9-27%) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant's bedroom. Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32% (95% CI, 12-54%) higher PM2.5 concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant's bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM2.5 concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. Conclusions: We identified several sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. The concentrations can be reduced by use of a range hood for frying, by not using candles, a fireplace or a stove, by increasing the distance between the bedroom and the smoking area and by opening windows in houses of smokers. Smoking is a strong predictor of fine PM in infants' bedrooms and should be avoided.

U2 - 10.1016/j.envres.2010.10.007

DO - 10.1016/j.envres.2010.10.007

M3 - Journal article

VL - 111

SP - 87

EP - 93

JO - Environmental Research

JF - Environmental Research

SN - 0013-9351

IS - 1

ER -