Origins Left, Right, and Centre: Increasing the Number of Initiation Sites in the Escherichia coli Chromosome

Juachi U. Dimude, Monja Stein, Ewa E. Andrzejewska, Mohammad S. Khalifa, Alexandra Gajdosova, Renata Retkute, Ole Skovgaard, Christian J. Rudolph

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Abstract

The bacterium Escherichia coli contains a single circular chromosome with a defined architecture. DNA replication initiates at a single origin called oriC. Two replication forks are assembled and proceed in opposite directions until they fuse in a specialised zone opposite the origin. This termination area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that allow forks to enter, but not to leave. Thus, the chromosome is divided into two replichores, each replicated by a single replication fork. Recently, we analysed the replication parameters in E. coli cells, in which an ectopic origin termed oriZ was integrated in the right-hand replichore. Two major obstacles to replication were identified: (1) head-on replication–transcription conflicts at highly transcribed rrnoperons, and (2) the replication fork trap. Here, we describe replication parameters in cells with ectopic origins, termed oriX and oriY, integrated into the left-hand replichore, and a triple origin construct with oriX integrated in the left-hand and oriZ in the right-hand replichore. Our data again highlight both replication–transcription conflicts and the replication fork trap as important obstacles to DNA replication, and we describe a number of spontaneous large genomic rearrangements which successfully alleviate some of the problems arising from having an additional origin in an ectopic location. However, our data reveal additional factors that impact efficient chromosome duplication, highlighting the complexity of chromosomal architecture.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer376
TidsskriftGenes
Vol/bind9
Udgave nummer8
Antal sider21
ISSN2073-4425
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 27 jul. 2018

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