Nutrient Signaling and Developmental Timing of Maturation

E. Thomas Danielsen, Morten E. Moeller, Kim F. Rewitz

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

In animals, developmental timing of sexual maturation is tightly linked to nutrition and growth. Maturation only occurs once the juvenile has acquired sufficient nutrients and completed enough growth to produce a reproductively mature adult with a genetically predefined body size. Animals therefore adjust the duration of juvenile development to the dietary conditions. When nutrients are scarce the juvenile growth phase is extended to compensate for slow growth. Conversely, development is accelerated in nutrient rich environments where animals rapidly reach their genetic target size. To achieve such flexibility, nutrient-dependent growth regulators must feed into the endocrine system that controls the timing of maturation. Work on the fruit fly Drosophila has revealed a central role of secreted signal molecules with similarity to the conserved insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the decision making process. These molecules are involved in checkpoints that allow the endocrine system to decide whether to release the steroid hormone, ecdysone, that triggers maturation or extent development, depending on nutrient levels and growth status. Importantly, different dietary components influence timing of maturation in Drosophila, with proteins having the greatest impact; fat and sugar play a minor role, at least within the limits of what can be considered a balanced diet. Remarkably, excess dietary sugar concentrations that mimic physiological conditions associated with diabetes, negatively affect growth and delays maturation. Altogether, this shows that the source of energy in the diet is important for timing and may provide a paradigm for understanding the emerging links between diet, obesity and diabetes, and the onset of puberty. Here, we provide an overview of the system underlying developmental timing of maturation in Drosophila and review recent success in understanding its coupling to nutrition and growth.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftCurrent Topics in Developmental Biology
Vol/bind2013
Udgave nummer105
Sider (fra-til)37-67
Antal sider31
ISSN0070-2153
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2013
Udgivet eksterntJa

Citer dette

Danielsen, E. Thomas ; Moeller, Morten E. ; Rewitz, Kim F. / Nutrient Signaling and Developmental Timing of Maturation. I: Current Topics in Developmental Biology. 2013 ; Bind 2013, Nr. 105. s. 37-67.
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Nutrient Signaling and Developmental Timing of Maturation. / Danielsen, E. Thomas; Moeller, Morten E.; Rewitz, Kim F.

I: Current Topics in Developmental Biology, Bind 2013, Nr. 105, 2013, s. 37-67.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nutrient Signaling and Developmental Timing of Maturation

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AU - Moeller, Morten E.

AU - Rewitz, Kim F.

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AB - In animals, developmental timing of sexual maturation is tightly linked to nutrition and growth. Maturation only occurs once the juvenile has acquired sufficient nutrients and completed enough growth to produce a reproductively mature adult with a genetically predefined body size. Animals therefore adjust the duration of juvenile development to the dietary conditions. When nutrients are scarce the juvenile growth phase is extended to compensate for slow growth. Conversely, development is accelerated in nutrient rich environments where animals rapidly reach their genetic target size. To achieve such flexibility, nutrient-dependent growth regulators must feed into the endocrine system that controls the timing of maturation. Work on the fruit fly Drosophila has revealed a central role of secreted signal molecules with similarity to the conserved insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the decision making process. These molecules are involved in checkpoints that allow the endocrine system to decide whether to release the steroid hormone, ecdysone, that triggers maturation or extent development, depending on nutrient levels and growth status. Importantly, different dietary components influence timing of maturation in Drosophila, with proteins having the greatest impact; fat and sugar play a minor role, at least within the limits of what can be considered a balanced diet. Remarkably, excess dietary sugar concentrations that mimic physiological conditions associated with diabetes, negatively affect growth and delays maturation. Altogether, this shows that the source of energy in the diet is important for timing and may provide a paradigm for understanding the emerging links between diet, obesity and diabetes, and the onset of puberty. Here, we provide an overview of the system underlying developmental timing of maturation in Drosophila and review recent success in understanding its coupling to nutrition and growth.

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