The systemic reform of employment services in OECD countries was driven by New Public Management (NPM) and then post-NPM reforms, when first-phase changes such as privatization were amended with `joined up' processes to help manage fragmentation. This article examines the networking strategies of `street-level' employment services staff for the impacts of this. Contrary to expectations, networking has generally declined over the last decade. There are signs of path dependence in networking patterns within each country, but also a convergence of patterns for the UK and Australia, but not The Netherlands. Networking appears to be mediated by policy and regulatory imperatives.
Considine, M., & Lewis, J. (2012). Networks and Interactivity: Ten years of street-level governance in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Australia. Public Management Review (Print Edition), 14(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2011.589613