Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa

Mark Bayley, Johannes Overgaard, Andrea Sødergaard Høj, Anders Malmendal, Niels Chr Nielsen, Martin Holmstrup, Tobias Wang

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole-body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg(-1), accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg(-1), while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 micromol g(-1) dry mass during this time. Although (1)H-NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L(-1) in the long-term-estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftPhysiological and Biochemical Zoology
Vol/bind83
Udgave nummer3
Sider (fra-til)541-50
Antal sider10
ISSN1522-2152
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2011
Udgivet eksterntJa

Citer dette

Bayley, Mark ; Overgaard, Johannes ; Høj, Andrea Sødergaard ; Malmendal, Anders ; Nielsen, Niels Chr ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Wang, Tobias. / Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. I: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 2011 ; Bind 83, Nr. 3. s. 541-50.
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title = "Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa",
abstract = "The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97{\%} relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole-body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg(-1), accompanied by a 20{\%} increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg(-1), while the worms lost 50{\%} of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50{\%} after worms entered estivation and by 80{\%} after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 micromol g(-1) dry mass during this time. Although (1)H-NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L(-1) in the long-term-estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.",
author = "Mark Bayley and Johannes Overgaard and H{\o}j, {Andrea S{\o}dergaard} and Anders Malmendal and Nielsen, {Niels Chr} and Martin Holmstrup and Tobias Wang",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1086/651459",
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Bayley, M, Overgaard, J, Høj, AS, Malmendal, A, Nielsen, NC, Holmstrup, M & Wang, T 2011, 'Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa', Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, bind 83, nr. 3, s. 541-50. https://doi.org/10.1086/651459

Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. / Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes; Høj, Andrea Sødergaard; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Holmstrup, Martin; Wang, Tobias.

I: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Bind 83, Nr. 3, 2011, s. 541-50.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa

AU - Bayley, Mark

AU - Overgaard, Johannes

AU - Høj, Andrea Sødergaard

AU - Malmendal, Anders

AU - Nielsen, Niels Chr

AU - Holmstrup, Martin

AU - Wang, Tobias

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole-body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg(-1), accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg(-1), while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 micromol g(-1) dry mass during this time. Although (1)H-NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L(-1) in the long-term-estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.

AB - The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm. These estivation chambers were exposed to 97% relative humidity for 30 d to simulate the effect of a severe summer drought. Gas exchange, body fluid osmolality, water balance, urea, and alanine were quantified, and whole-body homogenates were screened for changes in small organic molecules via (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Formation of estivation chambers was associated with a dramatic increase in body fluid osmolality, from 175 to 562 mOsm kg(-1), accompanied by a 20% increase in water content. Dehydration for 1 mo caused a further increase to 684 mOsm kg(-1), while the worms lost 50% of their water content. Gas exchange was depressed by 50% after worms entered estivation and by 80% after a further 30 d of dehydration. Urea concentrations increased from 0.3 to 1 micromol g(-1) dry mass during this time. Although (1)H-NMR did not provide the identity of the osmolytes responsible for the initial increase in osmolality after estivation, it showed that alanine increased to more than 80 mmol L(-1) in the long-term-estivation group. We propose that alanine functions as a nitrogen depot during dehydration and is not an anaerobe product in this case.

U2 - 10.1086/651459

DO - 10.1086/651459

M3 - Journal article

VL - 83

SP - 541

EP - 550

JO - Physiological and Biochemical Zoology

JF - Physiological and Biochemical Zoology

SN - 1522-2152

IS - 3

ER -