Magnitude and processes of bank erosion at a small stream in Denmark

Anita Veihe, Niels H. Jensen, Iris Gunia Schiøtz, Søren Laurentius Nielsen

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

River banks are important sources of sediment and phosphorus to fluvial systems, and the erosion processes operating on the banks are complex and change over time. This study explores the magnitude of bank erosion on a cohesive streambank within a small channelized stream and studies the various types of erosion processes taking place. Repeat field surveys of erosion pin plots were carried out during a 4-year period and observations were supplemented by continuous monitoring of volumetric soil water content, soil temperature, ground water level and exposure of a PEEP sensor. Bank erosion rates(17Ð6–30Ð1 mm year-1) and total P content on the banks were relatively high, which makes the bank an important source of sediment and phosphorus to the stream, and it was estimated that 0Ð27 kg Ptot year-1 ha-1 may potentially be supplied to the stream from the banks. Yearly pin erosion rates exceeding 5 cm year1 were mainly found at the lower parts of the bank and were associated with fluvial erosion. Negative erosion pin readings were widespread with a net advance of the bank during the monitoring period mainly attributed to subaerial processes and bank failure. It was found that dry periods characterized by low soil water content and freeze–thaw cycles during winter triggered bank failures. The great spatial variability, in combination with the temporal interaction of processes operating at different scales, requires new tools such as3-D topographical surveying to better capture bank erosion rates. An understanding of the processes governing bank erosion is required for riparian management using vegetational measures as root size and structure play different roles when it comes to controlling bank erosion processes.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftHydrological Processes
Vol/bind25
Udgave nummer10
Sider (fra-til)1597-1613
Antal sider17
ISSN0885-6087
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2011

Citer dette

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title = "Magnitude and processes of bank erosion at a small stream in Denmark",
abstract = "River banks are important sources of sediment and phosphorus to fluvial systems, and the erosion processes operating on the banks are complex and change over time. This study explores the magnitude of bank erosion on a cohesive streambank within a small channelized stream and studies the various types of erosion processes taking place. Repeat field surveys of erosion pin plots were carried out during a 4-year period and observations were supplemented by continuous monitoring of volumetric soil water content, soil temperature, ground water level and exposure of a PEEP sensor. Bank erosion rates (17{\DH}6–30{\DH}1 mm year-1) and total P content on the banks were relatively high, which makes the bank an important source of sediment and phosphorus to the stream, and it was estimated that 0{\DH}27 kg Ptot year-1 ha-1 may potentially be supplied to the stream from the banks. Yearly pin erosion rates exceeding 5 cm year1 were mainly found at the lower parts of the bank and were associated with fluvial erosion. Negative erosion pin readings were widespread with a net advance of the bank during the monitoring period mainly attributed to subaerial processes and bank failure. It was found that dry periods characterized by low soil water content and freeze–thaw cycles during winter triggered bank failures. The great spatial variability, in combination with the temporal interaction of processes operating at different scales, requires new tools such as 3-D topographical surveying to better capture bank erosion rates. An understanding of the processes governing bank erosion is required for riparian management using vegetational measures as root size and structure play different roles when it comes to controlling bank erosion processes.",
keywords = "streambank erosion, erosion rates, subaerial processes, streambank mass failure, fluvial entrainment",
author = "Anita Veihe and Jensen, {Niels H.} and Schi{\o}tz, {Iris Gunia} and Nielsen, {S{\o}ren Laurentius}",
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Magnitude and processes of bank erosion at a small stream in Denmark. / Veihe, Anita; Jensen, Niels H.; Schiøtz, Iris Gunia; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius.

I: Hydrological Processes, Bind 25, Nr. 10, 2011, s. 1597-1613.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Magnitude and processes of bank erosion at a small stream in Denmark

AU - Veihe, Anita

AU - Jensen, Niels H.

AU - Schiøtz, Iris Gunia

AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - River banks are important sources of sediment and phosphorus to fluvial systems, and the erosion processes operating on the banks are complex and change over time. This study explores the magnitude of bank erosion on a cohesive streambank within a small channelized stream and studies the various types of erosion processes taking place. Repeat field surveys of erosion pin plots were carried out during a 4-year period and observations were supplemented by continuous monitoring of volumetric soil water content, soil temperature, ground water level and exposure of a PEEP sensor. Bank erosion rates (17Ð6–30Ð1 mm year-1) and total P content on the banks were relatively high, which makes the bank an important source of sediment and phosphorus to the stream, and it was estimated that 0Ð27 kg Ptot year-1 ha-1 may potentially be supplied to the stream from the banks. Yearly pin erosion rates exceeding 5 cm year1 were mainly found at the lower parts of the bank and were associated with fluvial erosion. Negative erosion pin readings were widespread with a net advance of the bank during the monitoring period mainly attributed to subaerial processes and bank failure. It was found that dry periods characterized by low soil water content and freeze–thaw cycles during winter triggered bank failures. The great spatial variability, in combination with the temporal interaction of processes operating at different scales, requires new tools such as 3-D topographical surveying to better capture bank erosion rates. An understanding of the processes governing bank erosion is required for riparian management using vegetational measures as root size and structure play different roles when it comes to controlling bank erosion processes.

AB - River banks are important sources of sediment and phosphorus to fluvial systems, and the erosion processes operating on the banks are complex and change over time. This study explores the magnitude of bank erosion on a cohesive streambank within a small channelized stream and studies the various types of erosion processes taking place. Repeat field surveys of erosion pin plots were carried out during a 4-year period and observations were supplemented by continuous monitoring of volumetric soil water content, soil temperature, ground water level and exposure of a PEEP sensor. Bank erosion rates (17Ð6–30Ð1 mm year-1) and total P content on the banks were relatively high, which makes the bank an important source of sediment and phosphorus to the stream, and it was estimated that 0Ð27 kg Ptot year-1 ha-1 may potentially be supplied to the stream from the banks. Yearly pin erosion rates exceeding 5 cm year1 were mainly found at the lower parts of the bank and were associated with fluvial erosion. Negative erosion pin readings were widespread with a net advance of the bank during the monitoring period mainly attributed to subaerial processes and bank failure. It was found that dry periods characterized by low soil water content and freeze–thaw cycles during winter triggered bank failures. The great spatial variability, in combination with the temporal interaction of processes operating at different scales, requires new tools such as 3-D topographical surveying to better capture bank erosion rates. An understanding of the processes governing bank erosion is required for riparian management using vegetational measures as root size and structure play different roles when it comes to controlling bank erosion processes.

KW - streambank erosion

KW - erosion rates

KW - subaerial processes

KW - streambank mass failure

KW - fluvial entrainment

U2 - 10.1002/hyp.7921

DO - 10.1002/hyp.7921

M3 - Journal article

VL - 25

SP - 1597

EP - 1613

JO - Hydrological Processes

JF - Hydrological Processes

SN - 0885-6087

IS - 10

ER -