Lysine-PEGylated Cytochrome c with Enhanced Shelf-Life Stability

João H.P.M. Santos*, Valker A. Feitosa, Giovanna P. Meneguetti, Gustavo Carretero, João A.P. Coutinho, Sónia P.M. Ventura, Carlota O. Rangel-Yagui*

*Corresponding author

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


Cytochrome c (Cyt-c), a small mitochondrial electron transport heme protein, has been employed in bioelectrochemical and therapeutic applications. However, its potential as both a bio-sensor and anticancer drug is significantly impaired due to poor long-term and thermal stability. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed a site-specific PEGylation protocol for Cyt-c. The PEG derivative used was a 5 kDa mPEG-NHS, and a site-directed PEGylation at the lysine amino-acids was performed. The effects of the pH of the reaction media, molar ratio (Cyt-c:mPEG-NHS) and reaction time were evaluated. The best conditions were defined as pH 7, 1:25 Cyt-c:mPEG-NHS and 15 min reaction time, resulting in PEGylation yield of 45% for Cyt-c-PEG-4 and 34% for Cyt-c-PEG-8 (PEGylated cytochrome c with 4 and 8 PEG molecules, respectively). Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that PEGylation did not cause significant changes to the secondary and tertiary struc-tures of the Cyt-c. The long-term stability of native and PEGylated Cyt-c forms was also investigated in terms of peroxidative activity. The results demonstrated that both Cyt-c-PEG-4 and Cyt-c-PEG-8 were more stable, presenting higher half-life than unPEGylated protein. In particular, Cyt-c-PEG-8 presented great potential for biomedical applications, since it retained 30–40% more residual activity than Cyt-c over 60-days of storage, at both studied temperatures of 4 °C and 25 °C.
Udgave nummer2
Antal sider13
StatusUdgivet - 4 feb. 2022
Udgivet eksterntJa

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP/Brazil, grant numbers #2016/22065-5 and #2018/25994-2), the Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES/Brazil, Project 001), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq/Brazil, Fellowship #301832/2017-0) and the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UIDB/50011/2020 & UIDP/50011/2020).


  • Bioconjugation
  • Cytochrome-c
  • Long-term stability
  • Lysine PEGylation

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