Long-term exposure to transportation noise and risk for type 2 diabetes in a nationwide cohort study from denmark

Jesse D. Thacher*, Aslak H. Poulsen, Ulla A. Hvidtfeldt, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Jørgen Brandt, Camilla Geels, Jibran Khan, Thomas Münzel, Mette Sørensen

*Corresponding author

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have linked transportation noise to increased morbidity and mortality, particularly for cardiovascular outcomes. However, studies investigating metabolic outcomes such as diabetes are limited and have focused only on noise exposures estimated for the loudest residential façade. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the influence of long-term residential exposure to transportation noise at the loudest and quietest residential façades and the risk for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Road traffic and railway noise exposures (Lden) at the most and least exposed façades were estimated for all dwellings in Denmark during 1990–2017. Aircraft noise was estimated in 5-dB categories. Ten-year time-weighted mean noise exposures were estimated for 3:56 million individu-als ≥35 years of age. From 2000 to 2017, 233,912 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified using hospital and prescription registries, with a mean follow-up of 12.9 y. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for individual-and area-level covariates and long-term residential air pollution. The population-attributable fraction (PAF) was also computed. RESULTS: Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes in association with 10-dB increases in 10-y mean road traffic noise at the most and least exposed façades, respectively, were 1.05 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.05) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.10). Following subsequent adjustment for fine particulate matter [particulate matter ≤2:5 lm in aerodynamic diameter] (10-y mean), the HRs (CIs) were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.04) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.09), respectively. For railway noise, the HRs per 10-dB increase in 10-y mean exposure were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.04) and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.04) for the most and least exposed façades, respectively. Categorical models supported a linear exposure–outcome relationship for road traffic noise and, to a lesser extent, for railway noise. Aircraft noise >45 dB was associated with a 1–4% higher likelihood of type 2 diabetes compared with those who were unexposed. We found road traffic and railway noise associated with a PAF of 8.5% and 1.4%, respectively, of the diabetes cases. DISCUSSION: Long-term exposure to road, railway, and possibly aircraft traffic noise was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in a nationwide cohort of Danish adults. Our findings suggest that diabetes should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to transportation noise.

TidsskriftEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Udgave nummer12
StatusUdgivet - dec. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
This project was funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark (grant 7016-00036B) and the Health Effects Institute (HEI) (Assistance Award R-82811201).

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