Long-Term Exposure to Source-Specific Fine Particles and Mortality A Pooled Analysis of 14 European Cohorts within the ELAPSE Project

Jie Chen*, Gerard Hoek, Kees De Hoogh, Sophia Rodopoulou, Zorana J. Andersen, Tom Bellander, Jørgen Brandt, Daniela Fecht, Francesco Forastiere, John Gulliver, Ole Hertel, Barbara Hoffmann, Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt, W. M.Monique Verschuren, Karl Heinz Jöckel, Jeanette T. Jørgensen, Klea Katsouyanni, Matthias Ketzel, Diego Yacamán Méndez, Karin LeanderShuo Liu, Petter Ljungman, Elodie Faure, Patrik K.E. Magnusson, Gabriele Nagel, Göran Pershagen, Annette Peters, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Debora Rizzuto, Evangelia Samoli, Yvonne T. Van Der Schouw, Sara Schramm, Gianluca Severi, Massimo Stafoggia, Maciej Strak, Mette Sørensen, Anne Tjønneland, Gudrun Weinmayr, Kathrin Wolf, Emanuel Zitt, Bert Brunekreef, George D. Thurston

*Corresponding author

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


We assessed mortality risks associated with source-specific fine particles (PM2.5) in a pooled European cohort of 323,782 participants. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for source-specific PM2.5 identified through a source apportionment analysis. Exposure to 2010 annual average concentrations of source-specific PM2.5 components was assessed at baseline residential addresses. The source apportionment resulted in the identification of five sources: traffic, residual oil combustion, soil, biomass and agriculture, and industry. In single-source analysis, all identified sources were significantly positively associated with increased natural mortality risks. In multisource analysis, associations with all sources attenuated but remained statistically significant with traffic, oil, and biomass and agriculture. The highest association per interquartile increase was observed for the traffic component (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04 and 1.08 per 2.86 μg/m3 increase) across five identified sources. On a 1 μg/m3 basis, the residual oil-related PM2.5 had the strongest association (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05 and 1.22), which was substantially higher than that for generic PM2.5 mass, suggesting that past estimates using the generic PM2.5 exposure response function have underestimated the potential clean air health benefits of reducing fossil-fuel combustion. Source-specific associations with cause-specific mortality were in general consistent with findings of natural mortality.

TidsskriftEnvironmental Science and Technology
Udgave nummer13
Sider (fra-til)9277-9290
Antal sider14
StatusUdgivet - 5 jul. 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
The research described in this article was conducted under contract to the Health Effects Institute (HEI), an organization jointly funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Assistance Award No. R-82811201) and certain motor vehicle and engine manufacturers.


  • absolute principal component analysis (APCA)
  • fine particulate matter (PM)
  • mortality
  • source apportionment

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